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      Tackling chronic migraine: current perspectives

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          Abstract

          In the last decade, several diagnostic criteria and definitions have been proposed for chronic migraine (CM). The third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders–3 beta, published in 2013, has revised CM diagnostic criteria. CM is defined as “headache occurring on 15 or more days per month for more than 3 months, which has the features of migraine headache on at least 8 days per month.” Patients who meet the criteria for CM and for medication-overuse headache should be given both diagnoses. Worldwide, CM prevalence ranges 1%–3%, and its incidence has been estimated to be 2.5% per year. CM is associated with disability and poor quality of life. Modifiable risk factors include (among others): migraine progression (defined as an increase in frequency and severity of migraine attacks); medication and caffeine overuse; obesity; stressful life events; and snoring. CM patients have a significantly higher frequency of some comorbid conditions, including chronic pain, psychiatric disorders, respiratory illness, and some vascular risk factors. Management includes identification and control of comorbidities and risk factors that predispose to CM; treatment and prevention for medication overuse; early treatment for migraine attacks; and an adequate preventive therapy for CM. Several randomized controlled clinical trials have shown the efficacy of topiramate, amitriptyline, onabotulinumtoxinA, and cognitive-behavioral therapy in CM.

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          The International Classification of Headache Disorders: 2nd edition.

            (2003)
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            New appendix criteria open for a broader concept of chronic migraine.

            After the introduction of chronic migraine and medication overuse headache as diagnostic entities in The International Classification of Headache Disorders, Second Edition, ICHD-2, it has been shown that very few patients fit into the diagnostic criteria for chronic migraine (CM). The system of being able to use CM and the medication overuse headache (MOH) diagnosis only after discontinuation of overuse has proven highly unpractical and new data have suggested a much more liberal use of these diagnoses. The International Headache Classification Committee has, therefore, worked out the more inclusive criteria for CM and MOH presented in this paper. These criteria are included in the appendix of ICHD-2 and are meant primarily for further scientific evaluation but may be used already now for inclusion into drug trials, etc. It is now recommended that the MOH diagnosis should no longer request improvement after discontinuation of medication overuse but should be given to patients if they have a primary headache plus ongoing medication overuse. The latter is defined as previously, i.e. 10 days or more of intake of triptans, ergot alkaloids mixed analgesics or opioids and 15 days or more of analgesics/NSAIDs or the combined use of more than one substance. If these new criteria for CM and MOH prove useful in future testing, the plan is to include them in a future revised version of ICHD-2.
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              Global prevalence of chronic migraine: a systematic review.

              The aim of this review was to summarize population-based studies reporting prevalence and/or incidence of chronic migraine (CM) and to explore variation across studies. A systematic literature search was conducted. Relevant data were abstracted and estimates were subdivided based on the criteria used in each study. Sixteen publications representing 12 studies were accepted. None presented data on CM incidence. The prevalence of CM was 0-5.1%, with estimates typically in the range of 1.4-2.2%. Seven studies used Silberstein-Lipton criteria (or equivalent), with prevalence ranging from 0.9% to 5.1%. Three estimates used migraine that occurred ≥15 days per month, with prevalence ranging from 0 to 0.7%. Prevalence varied by World Health Organization region and gender. This review identified population-based studies of CM prevalence, although heterogeneity across studies and lack of data from certain regions leaves an incomplete picture. Future studies on CM would benefit from an International Classification of Headache Disorders consensus diagnosis that is clinically appropriate and operational in epidemiological studies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2014
                08 April 2014
                : 7
                : 185-194
                Affiliations
                Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, UK; Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Francisco Javier Carod-Artal, Neurology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Old Perth Road, IV2 3UJ, Inverness, UK, Tel +44 14 6370 6229, Email javier.carodartal@ 123456nhs.net
                Article
                jpr-7-185
                10.2147/JPR.S61819
                3986300
                24748814
                © 2014 Carod-Artal. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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