In recent years, children's and adolescents' growth and development issues have received increasing attention with the socioeconomic development. The etiology of child short stature involves heredity, race, sex, nutrition, and a variety of endocrine hormones, which is very complex. The age of 6∼14 is the key period of children's development. Understanding the height characteristics, the prevalence of short stature, and its influencing factors at this stage and formulating preventive measures as soon as possible are conducive to improving the average height of children and reducing the incidence of short stature. In this study, cluster sampling was used to select 56,865 children and adolescents aged 6∼14 years old from 40 primary and secondary schools in Furong District of Changsha City, and the height of each child and adolescent was measured. The results showed that the overall crude prevalence of short stature in children aged 6∼14 in Furong District of Changsha is 2.82%. Growth hormone level <10 μ g/L, pubertal retardation, familial short stature, low egg intake, and intrauterine growth retardation are independent risk factors affecting the occurrence of short stature. In order to improve the status quo of short stature of children aged 6∼14 in Furong District, Changsha City, targeted intervention should be strengthened for people with combined high risk factors.