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      Hyaluronic Acid as Macromolecular Crowder in Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Cultures

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          Abstract

          The use of macromolecular crowding in the development of extracellular matrix-rich cell-assembled tissue equivalents is continuously gaining pace in regenerative engineering. Despite the significant advancements in the field, the optimal macromolecular crowder still remains elusive. Herein, the physicochemical properties of different concentrations of different molecular weights hyaluronic acid (HA) and their influence on equine adipose-derived stem cell cultures were assessed. Within the different concentrations and molecular weight HAs, the 10 mg/mL 100 kDa and 500 kDa HAs exhibited the highest negative charge and hydrodynamic radius, and the 10 mg/mL 100 kDa HA exhibited the lowest polydispersity index and the highest % fraction volume occupancy. Although HA had the potential to act as a macromolecular crowding agent, it did not outperform carrageenan and Ficoll ®, the most widely used macromolecular crowding molecules, in enhanced and accelerated collagen I, collagen III and collagen IV deposition.

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          Most cited references 104

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          DLS and zeta potential - What they are and what they are not?

          Adequate characterization of NPs (nanoparticles) is of paramount importance to develop well defined nanoformulations of therapeutic relevance. Determination of particle size and surface charge of NPs are indispensable for proper characterization of NPs. DLS (dynamic light scattering) and ZP (zeta potential) measurements have gained popularity as simple, easy and reproducible tools to ascertain particle size and surface charge. Unfortunately, on practical grounds plenty of challenges exist regarding these two techniques including inadequate understanding of the operating principles and dealing with critical issues like sample preparation and interpretation of the data. As both DLS and ZP have emerged from the realms of physical colloid chemistry - it is difficult for researchers engaged in nanomedicine research to master these two techniques. Additionally, there is little literature available in drug delivery research which offers a simple, concise account on these techniques. This review tries to address this issue while providing the fundamental principles of these techniques, summarizing the core mathematical principles and offering practical guidelines on tackling commonly encountered problems while running DLS and ZP measurements. Finally, the review tries to analyze the relevance of these two techniques from translatory perspective.
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            Engineering substrate topography at the micro- and nanoscale to control cell function.

            The interaction of mammalian cells with nanoscale topography has proven to be an important signaling modality in controlling cell function. Naturally occurring nanotopographic structures within the extracellular matrix present surrounding cells with mechanotransductive cues that influence local migration, cell polarization, and other functions. Synthetically nanofabricated topography can also influence cell morphology, alignment, adhesion, migration, proliferation, and cytoskeleton organization. We review the use of in vitro synthetic cell-nanotopography interactions to control cell behavior and influence complex cellular processes, including stem-cell differentiation and tissue organization. Future challenges and opportunities in cell-nanotopography engineering are also discussed, including the elucidation of mechanisms and applications in tissue engineering.
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              Hallmarks of Cellular Senescence

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                09 April 2021
                April 2021
                : 10
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Animal Science, Nutrition and Biotechnology, Department of Agriculture, University of Ioannina, 47100 Arta, Greece; gsergio@ 123456vet.auth.gr (S.G.-G.); jskoufos@ 123456uoi.gr (I.S.); tzora@ 123456uoi.gr (A.T.)
                [2 ]School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece; diakakis@ 123456vet.auth.gr (N.D.); ngreen@ 123456vet.auth.gr (N.P.)
                [3 ]Regenerative, Modular & Developmental Engineering Laboratory (REMODEL), Biomedical Sciences Building, National University of Ireland Galway (NUI Galway), H92 W2TY Galway, Ireland; stefanie.korntner@ 123456gmail.com
                [4 ]Science Foundation Ireland (SFI) Centre for Research in Medical Devices (CÚRAM), Biomedical Sciences Building, National University of Ireland Galway (NUI Galway), H92 W2TY Galway, Ireland
                [5 ]Regenerative, Modular & Developmental Engineering Laboratory (REMODEL), Faculty of Biomedical Sciences, Università della Svizzera Italiana (USI), 6904 Lugano, Switzerland
                [6 ]Regenerative, Modular & Developmental Engineering Laboratory (REMODEL), School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University College Dublin (UCD), D04 V1W8 Dublin, Ireland
                Author notes
                Article
                cells-10-00859
                10.3390/cells10040859
                8070604
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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