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      CD31 Regulates Direction and Rate of Neutrophil Migration over and under Endothelial Cells

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          Abstract

          Mechanisms guiding migration of neutrophils through endothelium are poorly understood. We showed previously that CD31-CD31 binding acted as an ‘accelerator’ for neutrophils migrating on platelets, while neutrophil αvβ3-integrin acted as a sensor to align migration with the direction of imposed flow. Here, we perfused neutrophils over human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) treated with tumour necrosis factor-α, and characterised the kinetics of migration over, through and underneath the HUVEC. Before penetrating the monolayer, activated neutrophils migrated relatively slowly over the surface (∼6 µm/min), preferentially in the direction of flow. Once transmigrated, neutrophils moved more rapidly (∼14 µm/min) without preferred direction. Treatment of HUVEC and/or neutrophils with function-blocking antibodies against CD31 reduced directionality but not velocity of migration on top of HUVEC, and reduced velocity of migration underneath the monolayer. If neutrophils were pre-activated with formyl peptide, they did not migrate through the HUVEC, but migrated with increased velocity and directionality on top. Under these circumstances, both velocity and directionality were reduced by blocking CD31. αvβ3-integrin did not regulate migration under any conditions. We conclude that CD31-CD31 bonds act as robust sensors which can guide neutrophil migration, and also modify its velocity. Thus mechanical and adhesive signals can regulate neutrophil migration driven by locally-acting chemotactic agents.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Ability of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to orient in gradients of chemotactic factors

           SH Zigmond (1977)
          Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis has been examined under conditions which allow phase microscope observations of cells responding to controlled gradients of chemotactic factors. With this visual assay, PMNs can be seen to orient rapidly and reversibly to gradients of N-formylmethionyl peptides. The level of orientation depends upon the mean concentration of peptide present as well as the concentration gradient. The response allows an estimation of the binding constant of the peptide to the cell. In optimal gradients, PMNs can detect a 1% difference in the concentration of peptide. At high cell densities, PMNs incubated with active peptides orient their locomotion away from the center of the cell population. This orientation appears to be due to inactivation of the peptides by the cells. Such inactivation in vivo could help to limit an inflammatory response.
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            Analysis of fibronectin receptor function with monoclonal antibodies: roles in cell adhesion, migration, matrix assembly, and cytoskeletal organization

            We have developed two rat mAbs that recognize different subunits of the human fibroblast fibronectin receptor complex and have used them to probe the function of this cell surface heterodimer. mAb 13 recognizes the integrin class 1 beta polypeptide and mAb 16 recognizes the fibronectin receptor alpha polypeptide. We tested these mAbs for their inhibitory activities in cell adhesion, spreading, migration, and matrix assembly assays using WI38 human lung fibroblasts. mAb 13 inhibited the initial attachment as well as the spreading of WI38 cells on fibronectin and laminin substrates but not on vitronectin. Laminin- mediated adhesion was particularly sensitive to mAb 13. In contrast, mAb 16 inhibited initial cell attachment to fibronectin substrates but had no effect on attachment to either laminin or vitronectin substrates. When coated on plastic, both mAbs promoted WI38 cell spreading. However, mAb 13 (but not mAb 16) inhibited the radial outgrowth of cells from an explant on fibronectin substrates. mAb 16 also did not inhibit the motility of individual fibroblasts on fibronectin in low density culture and, in fact, substantially accelerated migration rates. In assays of the assembly of an extracellular fibronectin matrix by WI38 fibroblasts, both mAbs produced substantial inhibition in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition of matrix assembly resulted from impaired retention of fibronectin on the cell surface. Treatment of cells with mAb 16 also resulted in a striking redistribution of cell surface fibronectin receptors from a streak-like pattern to a relatively diffuse distribution. Concomitant morphological changes included decreases in thick microfilament bundle formation and reduced adhesive contacts of the streak-like and focal contact type. Our results indicate that the fibroblast fibronectin receptor (a) functions in initial fibroblast attachment and in certain types of adhesive contact, but not in the later steps of cell spreading; (b) is not required for fibroblast motility but instead retards migration; and (c) is critically involved in fibronectin retention and matrix assembly. These findings suggest a central role for the fibronectin receptor in regulating cell adhesion and migration.
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              Shear forces promote lymphocyte migration across vascular endothelium bearing apical chemokines.

               G Cinamon,  R. Alon,  V Shinder (2001)
              Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) is thought to be a chemotactic process controlled by chemokine gradients across the endothelium. Using cytokine-activated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model of inflamed endothelium, we have shown that apical endothelial chemokines can trigger robust peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) migration across endothelial cells. Lymphocyte TEM was promoted by physiological shear stress applied continuously to migrating lymphocytes. Lymphocyte integrins, intact actin cytoskeleton and G(i) protein-mediated chemokine signaling, but not a chemotactic gradient, were mandatory for TEM. PBL TEM did not require intracellular free calcium or intact phosphatidyl inositol kinase activity in migrating lymphocytes. Thus, lymphocyte TEM is promoted by fluid shear-induced mechanical signals coupled to G(i) protein signals at apical endothelial zones.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2003
                October 2003
                03 October 2003
                : 40
                : 5
                : 467-479
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPhysiology and bRheumatology, The Medical School, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
                Article
                74296 J Vasc Res 2003;40:467–479
                10.1159/000074296
                14566092
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 49, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Paper

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