Modelling and simulation (M&S) of clinical data, e.g. pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and clinical endpoints, is a useful approach for more efficient interpretation of collected data and for extrapolation of knowledge to the entire target population. This type of documentation is included in the majority of marketing authorization applications for new medicinal products. This article summarizes the current status of regulatory review with respect to the role of M&S in Europe from the perspective of the Swedish Medical Products Agency. At present, regulatory bodies in Europe encourage the application of the M&S approach during drug development. However, there is a lack of consensus and transparent guidance documents. The main regulatory usage is in the evaluation of dose choices in sub-populations and as support for the dosing regimen in general. The regulatory review of conestat alfa illustrates how the dose recommendation was revised during the approval procedure based on M&S information. A survey of marketing authorization applications for new medicinal products approved in 2010 revealed that the use of the information gained from M&S documentation varies with respect to both regulatory review and the applicants' presentation of the data in the submitted dossier. Increased utilization and broadened application of M&S is anticipated in pharmaceutical development, where one area of focus is medicines for paediatric patients. Accordingly, the regulatory agencies will need to increase their capability to assess and utilize this type of information, and an interactive process among regulatory agencies is warranted to provide more unified regulatory assessment and guidance. Moreover, applicants are encouraged to expand on the usage of exposure-response models to map the systemic exposure range that yields safe and efficacious treatment and to improve the presentation of the gained knowledge in summary documents of the marketing authorization applications.