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      Review of the genus Aphaereta Förster, 1863 (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae) from the Afrotropical region, with description of three new species

      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The Aphaereta Förster, 1863 species of the Afrotropical region (including Madagascar) are reviewed.Three new species, A. elongata sp. n. (Kenya), A. hararensis sp. n. (Zimbabwe) and A. mosselensis sp. n. (South Africa) are described and illustrated. Re-descriptions of A. basirufa Granger, 1949 (Madagascar) and A. sarcophagensis Shenefelt, 1974 (South Africa) are added.

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          A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

          Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology, phylogenetic, taxonomic, and morphological research can be actualized. Inherent mechanisms for feedback and content delivery demonstrate the effectiveness of remote, collaborative ontology development and facilitate future refinement of the HAO.
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            Estimating the global species richness of an incompletely described taxon: an example using parasitoid wasps (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

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              Revision of the Australian Alysiini (Hymenoptera : Braconidae)

              The Australian species of Alysiini are revised. Fourteen genera are treated, with eight of these recorded from Australia for the first time. Two of the genera, one from eastern Australia and one from New Guinea, are described as new. Two new subgenera are described, Idiasta Foerster (Apiasta, subgen. nov.) and Leptolarthra Fischer (Cratocarpa, subgen. nov.). Forty-nine species are described, 43 of them new: one in Aphaereta Foerster; eight in Aspilota Foerster; six in Cratospila Foerster; 13 in Dinotrema Foerster; one in Heleomyzophaga, gen. nov.; one in Heratemis Walker; one in Hovhoa, gen. nov.; four in Idiasta; three in Leptolarthra; three in Orthostigma Ratzeburg; one in Phaenocarpa Foerster; and one in Tanycarpa Foerster. Keys are presented to all genera of Alysiinae known from Australia as well as the Australian species of Asobara, Aspilota, Cratospila, Dinotrema and Orthostigma. Additionally, the world genera are reviewed and their relationships discussed to provide a context for an assessment of the Australian fauna. The status of 80 available genus-group names is discussed. The following nomenclatural changes are proposed: Neorthostigma Belokobylskij and Patriaspilota Fischer are treated as subgenera of Orthostigma; Acrobela Foerster as a synonym of Tanycarpa; Idiolexis Foerster as a synonym of Phaenocarpa; Eudinostigma Tobias as a synonym of Dinotrema; and Leptotrema van Achterberg as a subgenus of Dinotrema. The following new combinations are in addition to those associated with the above nomenclatural changes: Aspilota magnareata (Fischer); Dinotrema hardyi (Fischer); Dinotrema parvimaxillatum (Fischer); Dinotrema rotatum (Fischer); Dinotrema schoenmanni (Fischer); Leptolarthra cubiceps (Bischoff); and Orthostigma orthostigmoides (Fischer). Host records are included for two of the newly described species. Heleomyzophaga collessi, gen. nov. et sp. nov. was reared from a heleomyzid fly and Dinotrema monstrosum, sp. nov. was reared from a platypezid fly. A third species, Idiasta minor, sp. nov., was collected from pitfall traps baited with carrion.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                March 18 2015
                March 18 2015
                : 42
                : 1-20
                Article
                10.3897/JHR.42.9135
                © 2015
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