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      Mid-19th century road network dataset for Galicia and Austrian Silesia, Habsburg Empire

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      Data in Brief
      Road network, Galicia, Austrian Silesia, Habsburg Empire, Historical GIS, HGIS

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          In this paper, we present the vector dataset of the historical road network of Galicia and Austrian Silesia (>80 000 km 2) in the mid-19th century – two regions of the former Habsburg Empire, located in Central Europe. The data were acquired manually from 455 map sheets of the Austrian second military survey map (1:28,800) for the four main road categories, according to the map legend. All the road categories present the roads passable at any time of the year, which was strategic information from the military point of view and build a network of 15 461 km. Currently, the data can be used by various researchers studying migrations, regional development, but also human impact on the environment, like land use change, invasive species introduction or landscape fragmentation. The dataset presents the times just before the most dynamic economic changes of the 19th century, which had a great impact on the region. On the other hand, the road network presented here was developed in the conditions of one country, the Habsburg Empire, which collapsed after the First World War, triggering the rise of new states and remodelling the transport network connections in Central Europe. Additionally, the data are accompanied by the layer of towns and villages with more than 2000 inhabitants, based on the 1857 Austrian census data.

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          Road development, housing growth, and landscape fragmentation in northern Wisconsin: 1937-1999.

          Roads remove habitat, alter adjacent areas, and interrupt and redirect ecological flows. They subdivide wildlife populations, foster invasive species spread, change the hydrologic network, and increase human use of adjacent areas. At broad scales, these impacts cumulate and define landscape patterns. The goal of this study was to improve our understanding of the dynamics of road networks over time, and their effects on landscape patterns, and identify significant relationships between road changes and other land-use changes. We mapped roads from aerial photographs from five dates between 1937 and 1999 in 17 townships in predominantly forested landscapes in northern Wisconsin, U.S.A. Patch-level landscape metrics were calculated on terrestrial area outside of a 15-m road-effect zone. We used generalized least-squares regression models to relate changes in road density and landscape pattern to concurrent changes in housing density. Rates of change and relationships were compared among three ecological regions. Our results showed substantial increases in both road density and landscape fragmentation during the study period. Road density more than doubled, and median, mean, and largest patch size were reduced by a factor of four, while patch shape became more regular. Increases in road density varied significantly among ecological subsections and were positively related to increases in housing density. Fragmentation was largely driven by increases in road density, but housing density had a significantly positive relationship with largest patch area and patch shape. Without protection of roadless areas, our results suggest road development is likely to continue in the future, even in areas where road construction is constrained by the physical environment. Recognizing the dynamic nature of road networks is important for understanding and predicting their ecological impacts over time and understanding where other types of development are likely to occur in the future. Historical perspectives of development can provide guidance in prioritizing management efforts to defragment landscapes and mitigate the ecological impacts of past road development.
            • Record: found
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            The origin and development of the road network of the Niagara Peninsula, Ontario, 1770–1851


              Author and article information

              Data Brief
              Data Brief
              Data in Brief
              21 November 2019
              February 2020
              21 November 2019
              : 28
              : 104854
              [1]Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Gronostajowa 7, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
              Author notes
              []Corresponding author. dominik.kaim@ 123456uj.edu.pl
              S2352-3409(19)31209-0 104854
              © 2019 The Authors

              This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

              : 10 October 2019
              : 12 November 2019
              : 14 November 2019
              Arts and Humanity

              road network,galicia,austrian silesia,habsburg empire,historical gis,hgis


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