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Suicidal Ideation of Probationers : Gender Differences

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suicidal ideation, probation, gender-specific, the Affordable Care Act

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Abstract. Background: Gender is often related to different life stressors and mental health disorders, but a limited amount of research examines risks of suicidal ideation of probationers by gender. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in suicidal ideation of probationers. Method: Using a national sample of 3,014 male and 1,306 female probationers with data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2009–2011), multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Results: Male and female probationers display similar demographic characteristics although their life circumstances and experiences seem different. Female probationers in the study were more likely to experience financial, psychological, and residential stressors than male probationers were. Female probationers were also more likely to have received medical and/or psychiatric treatments. Female probationers were exposed to more suicidal ideation risks than male probationers were. Additionally, no protective factors to suicidal ideation were found for female probationers. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a gender-specific approach to suicidal ideation of probationers may lessen the prevalence of suicidal ideation of this largely neglected population.

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Most cited references 38

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In 2002, an estimated 877,000 lives were lost worldwide through suicide. Some developed nations have implemented national suicide prevention plans. Although these plans generally propose multiple interventions, their effectiveness is rarely evaluated. To examine evidence for the effectiveness of specific suicide-preventive interventions and to make recommendations for future prevention programs and research. Relevant publications were identified via electronic searches of MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and PsychINFO databases using multiple search terms related to suicide prevention. Studies, published between 1966 and June 2005, included those that evaluated preventative interventions in major domains; education and awareness for the general public and for professionals; screening tools for at-risk individuals; treatment of psychiatric disorders; restricting access to lethal means; and responsible media reporting of suicide. Data were extracted on primary outcomes of interest: suicidal behavior (completion, attempt, ideation), intermediary or secondary outcomes (treatment seeking, identification of at-risk individuals, antidepressant prescription/use rates, referrals), or both. Experts from 15 countries reviewed all studies. Included articles were those that reported on completed and attempted suicide and suicidal ideation; or, where applicable, intermediate outcomes, including help-seeking behavior, identification of at-risk individuals, entry into treatment, and antidepressant prescription rates. We included 3 major types of studies for which the research question was clearly defined: systematic reviews and meta-analyses (n = 10); quantitative studies, either randomized controlled trials (n = 18) or cohort studies (n = 24); and ecological, or population- based studies (n = 41). Heterogeneity of study populations and methodology did not permit formal meta-analysis; thus, a narrative synthesis is presented. Education of physicians and restricting access to lethal means were found to prevent suicide. Other methods including public education, screening programs, and media education need more testing. Physician education in depression recognition and treatment and restricting access to lethal methods reduce suicide rates. Other interventions need more evidence of efficacy. Ascertaining which components of suicide prevention programs are effective in reducing rates of suicide and suicide attempt is essential in order to optimize use of limited resources.
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Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide; however, the prevalence and risk factors for the immediate precursors to suicide - suicidal ideation, plans and attempts - are not wellknown, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To report on the prevalence and risk factors for suicidal behaviours across 17 countries. A total of 84 850 adults were interviewed regarding suicidal behaviours and socio-demographic and psychiatric risk factors. The cross-national lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation, plans, and attempts is 9.2% (s.e.=0.1), 3.1% (s.e.=0.1), and 2.7% (s.e.=0.1). Across all countries, 60% of transitions from ideation to plan and attempt occur within the first year after ideation onset. Consistent cross-national risk factors included being female, younger, less educated, unmarried and having a mental disorder. Interestingly, the strongest diagnostic risk factors were mood disorders in high-income countries but impulse control disorders in low- and middle-income countries. There is cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behaviours, but strong consistency in the characteristics and risk factors for these behaviours. These findings have significant implications for the prediction and prevention of suicidal behaviours.
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Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.

Author and article information

[1]Department of Criminal Justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY, USA
Author notes
Sung-Suk Violet Yu, Department of Criminal Justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, 524 West 59th Street, North Hall, New York, NY 10019, USA, Tel. +1 212 237-8069, Fax +1 212 237-8940, E-mail
Hogrefe Publishing
09122015December 9, 2015
: 36
: 6
: 424-432
© 2015 Hogrefe Publishing

Distributed under the Hogrefe OpenMind License (

Self URI (pdf): cri_36_6_424.pdf
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