Abstract. Background: Gender is often related to different life stressors and mental health disorders, but a limited amount of research examines risks of suicidal ideation of probationers by gender. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in suicidal ideation of probationers. Method: Using a national sample of 3,014 male and 1,306 female probationers with data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2009–2011), multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Results: Male and female probationers display similar demographic characteristics although their life circumstances and experiences seem different. Female probationers in the study were more likely to experience financial, psychological, and residential stressors than male probationers were. Female probationers were also more likely to have received medical and/or psychiatric treatments. Female probationers were exposed to more suicidal ideation risks than male probationers were. Additionally, no protective factors to suicidal ideation were found for female probationers. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a gender-specific approach to suicidal ideation of probationers may lessen the prevalence of suicidal ideation of this largely neglected population.