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      Suicidal Ideation of Probationers : Gender Differences

      research-article
      1 , , 1
      Crisis
      Hogrefe Publishing
      suicidal ideation, probation, gender-specific, the Affordable Care Act

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          Abstract

          Abstract. Background: Gender is often related to different life stressors and mental health disorders, but a limited amount of research examines risks of suicidal ideation of probationers by gender. Aims: The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in suicidal ideation of probationers. Method: Using a national sample of 3,014 male and 1,306 female probationers with data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2009–2011), multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Results: Male and female probationers display similar demographic characteristics although their life circumstances and experiences seem different. Female probationers in the study were more likely to experience financial, psychological, and residential stressors than male probationers were. Female probationers were also more likely to have received medical and/or psychiatric treatments. Female probationers were exposed to more suicidal ideation risks than male probationers were. Additionally, no protective factors to suicidal ideation were found for female probationers. Conclusion: The findings suggest that a gender-specific approach to suicidal ideation of probationers may lessen the prevalence of suicidal ideation of this largely neglected population.

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          Most cited references57

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          Suicide and suicidal behavior.

          Suicidal behavior is a leading cause of injury and death worldwide. Information about the epidemiology of such behavior is important for policy-making and prevention. The authors reviewed government data on suicide and suicidal behavior and conducted a systematic review of studies on the epidemiology of suicide published from 1997 to 2007. The authors' aims were to examine the prevalence of, trends in, and risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in the United States and cross-nationally. The data revealed significant cross-national variability in the prevalence of suicidal behavior but consistency in age of onset, transition probabilities, and key risk factors. Suicide is more prevalent among men, whereas nonfatal suicidal behaviors are more prevalent among women and persons who are young, are unmarried, or have a psychiatric disorder. Despite an increase in the treatment of suicidal persons over the past decade, incidence rates of suicidal behavior have remained largely unchanged. Most epidemiologic research on suicidal behavior has focused on patterns and correlates of prevalence. The next generation of studies must examine synergistic effects among modifiable risk and protective factors. New studies must incorporate recent advances in survey methods and clinical assessment. Results should be used in ongoing efforts to decrease the significant loss of life caused by suicidal behavior.
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            Risk factors for suicide in psychiatric outpatients: a 20-year prospective study.

            To determine the risk factors for suicide, 6,891 psychiatric outpatients were evaluated in a prospective study. Subsequent deaths for the sample were identified through the National Death Index. Forty-nine (1%) suicides were determined from death certificates obtained from state vital statistics offices. Specific psychological variables that could be modified by clinical intervention were measured using standardized scales. Univariate survival analyses revealed that the severity of depression, hopelessness, and suicide ideation were significant risk factors for eventual suicide. A multivariate survival analysis indicated that several modifiable variables were significant and unique risk factors for suicide, including suicide ideation, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and unemployment status.
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              The gender paradox in suicidal behavior and its impact on the suicidal process.

              An important gender difference has been reported regarding suicidal behavior with an overrepresentation of females in nonfatal suicidal behavior and a preponderance of males in completed suicide, also known as the 'gender paradox of suicidal behavior'. The concept of a 'suicidal process' classifies suicidal behavior chronologically; this process starts with suicidal ideation and then implies a progression of suicidality ranging from suicidal ideation over plans to suicide attempts and finally fatal suicide. The current paper aims to deepen the knowledge on the gender paradox by collecting and discussing the recent literature on this topic: the most relevant, impacting gender-related factors will be discussed within the suicidal process concept. Several factors had a gender-dependent impact on suicidal behavior: psychosocial life stressors such as stressful life events but also sociodemographical or socio-economical factors, and sexual abuse. The gender differences in psychiatric (co)morbidity and in response to or attitude towards antidepressant treatment also appear to have an impact. Furthermore, not only suicide methods but also the gender-dependent variation in reporting suicide has an influence. Finally, the gender differences in help seeking behavior as well as region-dependent cultural beliefs and societal attitudes are discussed. Especially life-events seem to exert an important influence at the beginning of a suicidal process, whereas the other factors occur at a further stage in the process, however without a fixed chronology. Also, the duration of the suicidal process is much shorter in male than in females. Finally, some implications with regard to clinical practice and suicide prevention are suggested. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Crisis
                Crisis
                cri
                Crisis
                Hogrefe Publishing
                0227-5910
                2151-2396
                December 9, 2015
                2015
                : 36
                : 6
                : 424-432
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Criminal Justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Sung-Suk Violet Yu, Department of Criminal Justice, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, 524 West 59th Street, North Hall, New York, NY 10019, USA, Tel. +1 212 237-8069, Fax +1 212 237-8940, E-mail syu@ 123456jjay.cuny.edu
                Article
                10.1027/0227-5910/a000336
                4673689
                26648230
                1ce8edc5-5472-407f-84c8-3db740866a35
                © 2015 Hogrefe Publishing

                Distributed under the Hogrefe OpenMind License (http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/a000001)

                History
                : July 11, 2014
                : March 25, 2015
                : March 30, 2015
                Categories
                Research Trends

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                suicidal ideation,probation,gender-specific,the affordable care act

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