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      CO2 capture by solid adsorbents and their applications: current status and new trends

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          Adsorbent materials for carbon dioxide capture from large anthropogenic point sources.

          Since the time of the industrial revolution, the atmospheric CO(2) concentration has risen by nearly 35 % to its current level of 383 ppm. The increased carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere has been suggested to be a leading contributor to global climate change. To slow the increase, reductions in anthropogenic CO(2) emissions are necessary. Large emission point sources, such as fossil-fuel-based power generation facilities, are the first targets for these reductions. A benchmark, mature technology for the separation of dilute CO(2) from gas streams is via absorption with aqueous amines. However, the use of solid adsorbents is now being widely considered as an alternative, potentially less-energy-intensive separation technology. This Review describes the CO(2) adsorption behavior of several different classes of solid carbon dioxide adsorbents, including zeolites, activated carbons, calcium oxides, hydrotalcites, organic-inorganic hybrids, and metal-organic frameworks. These adsorbents are evaluated in terms of their equilibrium CO(2) capacities as well as other important parameters such as adsorption-desorption kinetics, operating windows, stability, and regenerability. The scope of currently available CO(2) adsorbents and their critical properties that will ultimately affect their incorporation into large-scale separation processes is presented.
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            Colossal cages in zeolitic imidazolate frameworks as selective carbon dioxide reservoirs.

            Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (ZIFs) are porous crystalline materials with tetrahedral networks that resemble those of zeolites: transition metals (Zn, Co) replace tetrahedrally coordinated atoms (for example, Si), and imidazolate links replace oxygen bridges. A striking feature of these materials is that the structure adopted by a given ZIF is determined by link-link interactions, rather than by the structure directing agents used in zeolite synthesis. As a result, systematic variations of linker substituents have yielded many different ZIFs that exhibit known or predicted zeolite topologies. The materials are chemically and thermally stable, yet have the long-sought-after design flexibility offered by functionalized organic links and a high density of transition metal ions. Here we report the synthesis and characterization of two porous ZIFs-ZIF-95 and ZIF-100-with structures of a scale and complexity previously unknown in zeolites. The materials have complex cages that contain up to 264 vertices, and are constructed from as many as 7,524 atoms. As expected from the adsorption selectivity recently documented for other members of this materials family, both ZIFs selectively capture carbon dioxide from several different gas mixtures at room temperature, with ZIF-100 capable of storing 28 litres per litre of material at standard temperature and pressure. These characteristics, combined with their high thermal and chemical stability and ease of fabrication, make ZIFs promising candidate materials for strategies aimed at ameliorating increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.
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              Advances in CO2 capture technology—The U.S. Department of Energy's Carbon Sequestration Program

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EESNBY
                Energy Environ. Sci.
                Energy Environ. Sci.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1754-5692
                1754-5706
                2011
                2011
                : 4
                : 1
                : 42-55
                Article
                10.1039/C0EE00064G
                1ced7b66-3c9a-4b29-a03b-8ac0892b9cde
                © 2011
                History

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