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      Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management (submit here)

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      Utilization of gastroprotective strategies for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastrointestinal events in a major teaching hospital


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          Background and purpose

          Clinical guidelines recommend the prescribing of gastroprotective strategies in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) users with risk factors for gastrointestinal (GI) ulcer or ulcer complications. However, these guidelines are not often translated into clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the utilization of gastroprotective strategies for NSAID-induced upper GI events in at-risk users in a major teaching hospital.

          Patients and methods

          A cross-sectional, observational, pharmacy-based study was conducted in a major Asian institution with both primary and secondary health care services. This study involved the screening of prescriptions for regular NSAIDs, and patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited and interviewed using a questionnaire.


          Of the 409 participants recruited, 83.1% had at least one GI risk factor, of whom 70.3% did not receive appropriate gastroprotection. The most common GI risk factor was the use of high-dose NSAIDs (69.2%), followed by participants aged 65 years and older (22%) and concomitant use of low-dose aspirin (11.7%). Appropriate gastroprotective strategies utilized consisted of the use of a cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor alone or a nonselective NSAID plus a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the moderate-risk group and a COX-2 inhibitor plus a PPI in the high-risk group. Gastroprotective strategies were underutilized in 67.1% of at-risk participants and overutilized in 59.4% of those without risk factors. Co-prescription of a histamine-2 receptor antagonist at lower-than-recommended doses constituted 59% of the inappropriate gastroprotective agents used. Logistic regression analysis revealed patients aged 65 years and older (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% CI =1.15–3.09) as a predictor for the prescribing of gastroprotection by the clinicians.


          Approximately 70% of at-risk NSAID users, mainly on high-dose NSAIDs, were not prescribed appropriate gastroprotective strategies. Further measures are warranted to improve the safe prescribing of regular NSAIDs.

          Most cited references36

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          Role of Helicobacter pylori infection and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in peptic-ulcer disease: a meta-analysis.

          The relation between H pylori infection and use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the pathogenesis of peptic-ulcer disease is controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis to address this issue. By computer and manually we sought observational studies on the prevalence of peptic-ulcer disease in adult NSAID takers or the prevalence of H pylori infection and NSAID use in patients with peptic-ulcer bleeding. Summary odds ratios were calculated from the raw data. Tests for homogeneity were done. Of 463 citations identified, 25 studies met inclusion criteria. In 16 studies of 1625 NSAID takers, uncomplicated peptic-ulcer disease was significantly more common in patients positive than in those negative for H pylori (341/817 [41.7%] vs 209/808 [25.9%]; odds ratio 2.12 [95% CI 1.68-2.67]). In five controlled studies, peptic-ulcer disease was significantly more common in NSAID takers (138/385 [35.8%]) than in controls (23/276 [8.3%]), irrespective of H pylori infection. Compared with H pylori negative individuals not taking NSAIDs, the risk of ulcer in H pylori infected NSAID takers was 61.1 (9.98-373). H pylori infection increased the risk of peptic-ulcer disease in NSAID takers 3.53-fold in addition to the risk associated with NSAID use (odds ratio 19.4). Similarly, in the presence of risk of peptic-ulcer disease associated with H pylori infection (18.1), use of NSAIDs increased the risk of peptic-ulcer disease 3.55-fold. H pylori infection and NSAID use increased the risk of ulcer bleeding 1.79-fold and 4.85-fold, respectively. However, the risk of ulcer bleeding increased to 6.13 when both factors were present. Both H pylori infection and NSAID use independently and significantly increase the risk of peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding. There is synergism for the development of peptic ulcer and ulcer bleeding between H pylori infection and NSAID use. Peptic-ulcer disease is rare in H pylori negative non-NSAID takers.
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            Association between nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding/perforation: an overview of epidemiologic studies published in the 1990s.

            In the last decades, studies have estimated the upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding/perforation (UGIB) risk associated with individual nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Later analyses have also included the effect of patterns of NSAID use, risk factors for UGIB, and modifiers of NSAID effect. Systematic review of case-control and cohort studies on serious gastrointestinal tract complications and nonaspirin NSAIDs published between 1990 and 1999 using MEDLINE. Eighteen original studies were selected according to predefined criteria. Two researchers extracted the data independently. Pooled relative risk estimates were calculated according to subject and exposure characteristics. Heterogeneity of effects was tested and reasons for heterogeneity were considered. Advanced age, history of peptic ulcer disease, and being male were risk factors for UGIB. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug users with advanced age or a history of peptic ulcer had the highest absolute risks. The pooled relative risk of UGIB after exposure to NSAIDs was 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 3.6-4.1). The increased risk was maintained during treatment and returned to baseline once treatment was stopped. A clear dose response was observed. There was some variation in risk between individual NSAIDs, though these differences were markedly attenuated when comparable daily doses were considered. The elderly and patients with a history of peptic ulcer could benefit the most from a reduction in NSAID gastrotoxicity. Whenever possible, physicians may wish to recommend lower doses to reduce the UGIB risk associated with all individual NSAIDs, especially in the subgroup of patients with the greatest background risk.
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              Misoprostol reduces serious gastrointestinal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

              To investigate whether concurrent administration of misoprostol reduces the occurrence of serious upper gastrointestinal complications, such as perforation, gastric outlet obstruction, or bleeding, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are receiving nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. 664 clinical practices of family medicine, internal medicine, or rheumatology in the United States and Canada. 8843 men and women (mean age, 68 years) receiving continuous therapy with any of 10 specified NSAIDs for control of symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Patients were enrolled between July 1991 and August 1993. Patients were randomly assigned to receive 200 micrograms of misoprostol or placebo four times a day. Development of serious upper gastrointestinal complications detected by clinical symptoms or findings (not by scheduled endoscopy). Serious upper gastrointestinal complications were reduced by 40% (odds ratio, 0.598 [95% CI, 0.364 to 0.982; P = 0.049]) among patients receiving misoprostol (25 of 4404 patients) compared with those receiving placebo (42 of 4439 patients). During the first month, more patients receiving misoprostol (20%) than placebo (15%) withdrew from the study, primarily because of diarrhea and related problems (P < 0.001). Risk factors for serious upper gastrointestinal complications were increasing age, history of peptic ulcer or bleeding, and cardiovascular disease. Patients with all four risk factors would have a 9% risk for a major complication in 6 months. In older patients with rheumatoid arthritis, misoprostol reduced serious NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal complications by 40% compared with placebo.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                10 November 2016
                : 12
                : 1649-1657
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Siew Siang Chua, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Jalan Pantai Baharu, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Tel +60 19 336 3223, Fax +60 3 7967 4964, Email chuass@ 123456um.edu.my
                © 2016 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                nsaid,cox-2 inhibitor,risk factor,proton pump inhibitor
                nsaid, cox-2 inhibitor, risk factor, proton pump inhibitor


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