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      How Does Podocyte Damage Result in Tubular Damage?

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          Abstract

          Severe podocyte damage including detachment from the GBM leads to adhesion of the glomerular tuft to Bowman’s capsule, thus to a local loss of the separation of the tuft from the interstitium. Perfused capillaries contained in the tuft adhesion deliver their filtrate no longer into Bowman’s space but into the interstitium. In response, interstitial fibroblasts create a cellular cover around the focus of misdirected filtration, interpreted teleologically, aiming at preventing the entry of this fluid into the interstitium. This results in the formation of a crescent–shaped, fluid–filled paraglomerular space overarching the segmental glomerular lesion. Extension of this space over the entire glomerulus leads to global sclerosis; extension of this space via the urinary pole onto the outer aspect of the corresponding tubule leads to the degeneration of the tubule. Since, as we postulate, such misdirected filtration and filtrate spreading is the crucial mechanism of damage progression in 'classic’ focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), the most characteristic structural injury of FSGS is the merger of the tuft with the interstitium, represented by a tuft adhesion, later a synechia. Therefore, histopathologically, 'classic’ FSGS is best defined by an adhesion/synechia of the tuft to Bowman’s capsule.

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          Most cited references 2

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          Pathophysiology of progressive nephropathies.

           T Bertani,  G. Remuzzi (1998)
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            Contribution of tubular injury to loss of remnant kidney function.

            The remnant kidney model has been widely used to identify mechanisms responsible for the progression of renal disease. However, the structural changes associated with progressive loss of function in this model have not been well characterized. Kidney function and structure were assessed at 10 weeks (REM 10) and 25 weeks (REM 25) after five-sixths renal ablation and in control rats (Control). Serial sections were examined to relate glomerular and tubular structure in individual nephrons. Remnant kidney function declined between 10 and 25 weeks after ablation (GFR 0.90 +/- 0.34 vs. 0.23 +/- 0.07 ml/min, REM 10 vs. REM 25, P < 0.05). This decline in function was associated with an increase in the prevalence of globally sclerotic glomeruli (14 +/- 10 vs. 0 +/- 0 vs. 0 +/- 0%, REM 25 vs. REM 10 vs. Control, P < 0.05 REM 25 vs. REM 10 and Control). The decline in remnant kidney function between 10 and 25 weeks was also associated with the appearance of glomeruli that were atubular (48 +/- 14 vs. 9 +/- 8 vs. 3 +/- 5%, REM 25 vs. REM 10 vs. Control, P < 0.05 REM 25 vs. REM 10 and Control) or connected to atrophic proximal tubule segments (26 +/- 10 vs. 11 +/- 6 vs. 1 +/- 2%, REM 25 vs. REM 10 vs. Control, P < 0.05 all comparisons). Atubular glomeruli, which usually had open capillary loops available for filtration, were more numerous than globally sclerotic glomeruli at 25 weeks after ablation. These findings indicate that tubular injury contributes to progressive loss of renal function following reduction in nephron number.
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              Author and article information

              Journal
              KBR
              Kidney Blood Press Res
              10.1159/issn.1420-4096
              Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
              S. Karger AG
              978-3-8055-6876-0
              978-3-318-00155-6
              1420-4096
              1423-0143
              1999
              1999
              18 May 1999
              : 22
              : 1-2
              : 26-36
              Affiliations
              aInstitut für Anatomie und Zellbiologie, Universität Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany; bDepartment of Pediatric Surgery, Laboratory for Surgery Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; cZentrum für medizinische Forschung, Universitätsklinikum Mannheim der Universität Heidelberg, Mannheim, Germany
              Article
              25906 Kidney Blood Press Res 1999;22:26–36
              10.1159/000025906
              10352405
              © 1999 S. Karger AG, Basel

              Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

              Page count
              Figures: 8, References: 33, Pages: 11
              Product
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/25906
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