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      Age and sex differences in normative gait patterns

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      Gait & Posture
      Elsevier BV

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          A joint coordinate system for the clinical description of three-dimensional motions: application to the knee.

          The experimental study of joint kinematics in three dimensions requires the description and measurement of six motion components. An important aspect of any method of description is the ease with which it is communicated to those who use the data. This paper presents a joint coordinate system that provides a simple geometric description of the three-dimensional rotational and translational motion between two rigid bodies. The coordinate system is applied to the knee and related to the commonly used clinical terms for knee joint motion. A convenient characteristic of the coordinate system shared by spatial linkages is that large joint displacements are independent of the order in which the component translations and rotations occur.
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            Age causes a redistribution of joint torques and powers during gait.

            At self-selected walking speeds, elderly compared with young adults generate decreased joint torques and powers in the lower extremity. These differences may be actual gait-limiting factors and neuromuscular adaptations with age or simply a consciously selected motor pattern to produce a slower gait. The purpose of the study was to compare joint torques and powers of young and elderly adults walking at the same speed. Twelve elderly and fourteen young adults (ages 69 and 21 yr) walked at 1.48 m/s over a force platform while being videotaped. Hip, knee, and ankle torques and powers were calculated from the reaction force and kinematic data. A support torque was calculated as the sum of the three joint torques. Extensor angular impulse during stance and positive work at each joint were derived from the torques and powers. Step length was 4% shorter and cadence was 4% higher in elderly adults (both P < 0.05) compared with young adults. Support angular impulse was nearly identical between groups, but elderly adults had 58% greater angular impulse and 279% more work at the hip, 50% less angular impulse and 39% less work at the knee, and 23% less angular impulse and 29% less work at the ankle compared with young adults (t-test, all P < 0.05). Age caused a redistribution of joint torques and powers, with the elderly using their hip extensors more and their knee extensors and ankle plantar flexors less than young adults when walking at the same speed. Along with a reduction in motor and sensory functions, the natural history of aging causes a shift in the locus of function in motor performance.
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              Step length reductions in advanced age: the role of ankle and hip kinetics.

              Aging is associated with a reduction in gait velocity, which is due to a shortened step length. This study investigated the relationship between joint kinetics and step length. Three-dimensional gait kinematics and kinetics were measured during usual pace gait in 26 older subjects (average age 79) and in 32 young subjects (average age 26). Gait measures were obtained at maximal velocity in five older subjects. Lower extremity strength was measured in the older subjects on an isokinetic dynamometer. Older persons had a 10% shorter step length during usual gait, when corrected for leg length (.65 +/- .07, .74 +/- .04/leg length, respectively, p < .001). Older persons had reduced ankle plantarflexion during late stance (13 +/- 5 degrees, 17 +/- 5 degrees, p = .02) and lower ankle plantarflexor power (2.9 +/- 0.9 W kg-1, 3.5 +/- 0.9 W kg-1, respectively, p = .007). Ankle strength was associated with plantarflexor power developed during late stance (r = .49, p < .001). When gait kinetics were corrected for step length, the older subjects developed 16% greater hip flexor power during late stance than younger subjects (estimate of effect: .15 W kg-1, p = .002). Older subjects were unable to increase ankle plantarflexor power at maximal pace, but increased hip flexor power 72% (1.1 +/- 0.3 W kg-1 to 1.9 +/- 1.0 W kg-1, p = .02). Older subjects had lower ankle plantarflexor power during the late stance phase of gait and appeared to compensate for reductions in plantarflexor power by increasing hip flexor power. Appropriate training of ankle plantarflexor muscles may be important in maintaining step length in advanced age.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                Gait & Posture
                Gait & Posture
                Elsevier BV
                09666362
                July 2021
                July 2021
                : 88
                : 109-115
                Article
                10.1016/j.gaitpost.2021.05.014
                1d074cdd-e97f-40c8-ac07-8472bda4d81e
                © 2021

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/


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