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      The description of a new species of Niphargus from Iran based on morphological and molecular data

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      Subterranean Biology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The freshwater amphipods of the genus Niphargus Schiödte, 1849 are widespread in subterranean waters of the western Palearctic. The eastern half of the genus range has been incompletely studied despite the presence of karstic areas and large aquifers. In this paper, we describe a new species from Hamedan Province in Iran and name it as N. hakani sp. n. This species‌ hypothesis is based on the analysis of morphological characters and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. The taxonomic status of the new species within the genus is discussed in comparison to the known Iranian species. Results revealed that this species is phylogenetically close to N. khwarizmi and is morphologically similar to N. borisi.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The colonization of Europe by the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (Crustacea: Isopoda) proceeded from ancient refugia and was directed by habitat connectivity.

          Recent continental-scale phylogeographic studies have demonstrated that not all freshwater fauna colonized Europe from the classic Mediterranean peninsular refugia, and that northern or central parts of the continent were occupied before, and remained inhabited throughout the Pleistocene. The colonization history of the ubiquitous aquatic isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus was assessed using mitochondrial COI and a variable part of nuclear 28S rDNA sequences. Phylogeographic analysis of the former suggested that dispersion proceeded possibly during late Miocene from the western part of the Pannonian basin. Several areas colonized from here have served as secondary refugia and/or origins of dispersion, well before the beginning of the Pleistocene. Postglacial large-scale range expansion was coupled with numerous separate local dispersions from different refugial areas. Connectivity of the freshwater habitat has played an important role in shaping the current distribution of genetic diversity, which was highest in large rivers. The importance of hydrographic connections for the maintenance of genetic contact was underscored by a discordant pattern of mtDNA and nuclear rDNA differentiation. Individuals from all over Europe, differing in their mtDNA to a level normally found between species or even genera (maximal within population nucleotide divergence reached 0.16 +/- 0.018), shared the same 28S rRNA gene sequence. Only populations from hydrographically isolated karst water systems in the northwestern Dinaric Karst had distinct 28S sequences. Here isolation seemed to be strong enough to prevent homogenization of the rRNA gene family, whereas across the rest of Europe genetic contact was sufficient for concerted evolution to act.
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            Phylogeny of the cave shrimp Troglocaris: Evidence of a young connection between Balkans and Caucasus.

            The remarkably discontinuous distribution of the cave shrimp genus Troglocaris in South France, West Balkans, and West Caucasus has long been considered a biogeographic enigma. To solve it, its phylogeny was reconstructed by analyzing sequences from two mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I and 16S rRNA) and one nuclear gene (28S rRNA) using maximum likelihood, parsimony and Bayesian inference. The genus was found to be polyphyletic because the French taxon T. inermis had no direct common ancestry with other Troglocaris taxa but was sister to the epigean freshwater atyid Dugastella valentina. All other Troglocaris species constituted a well-supported monophylum, the second cave shrimp genus Spelaeocaris nested within. The monophylum had a well-defined structure: (1) a clade restricted to the Dinaric area of the Western Balkans containing the type species T. anophthalmus along with some unnamed species, and (2) a geographically mixed clade split between the Caucasian T. kutaissiana species complex on one, and T. hercegovinensis, S. pretneri, plus an unnamed taxon on the other side. It was surprising to find the dichotomy between the Caucasian and one of the West-Balkan lineages so low in the phylogenetic hierarchy of the genus. Taking into account molecular rates of other decapods, we tentatively dated this split at 6-11 Myr. This time is in agreement with the brackish and freshwater phase of the Paratethys thus allowing for a freshwater common ancestor of Caucasian and Dinaric cave shrimps. This would weaken the marine relicts hypothesis that has often been invoked to explain the distribution of freshwater cave species with close marine relatives.
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              A phylogenetic perspective on 160 years of troubled taxonomy ofNiphargus(Crustacea: Amphipoda)

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Subterranean Biology
                SB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2615
                1768-1448
                April 07 2017
                April 07 2017
                : 22
                : 43-58
                Article
                10.3897/subtbiol.22.11286
                © 2017

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