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      Factors associated with experience of fatigue, and functional limitations due to fatigue in patients with stable COPD

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          The aim of this study was to determine the influence of selected physiological, psychological and situational factors on experience of fatigue, and functional limitations due to fatigue in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).


          In total 101 patients with COPD and 34 control patients were assessed for experience of fatigue, functional limitation due to fatigue (Fatigue Impact Scale), physiological [lung function, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), body mass index (BMI), dyspnoea, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), surfactant protein D], psychological (anxiety, depression, insomnia), situational variables (age, sex, smoking, living alone, education), and quality of life.


          Fatigue was more common in patients with COPD than in control patients (72% versus 56%, p < 0.001). Patients with COPD and fatigue had lower lung function, shorter 6MWD, more dyspnoea, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and worse health status compared with patients without fatigue (all p < 0.01). No differences were found for markers of systemic inflammation. In logistic regression, experience of fatigue was associated with depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–2.25) and insomnia (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.19–2.54). In linear regression models, depression, surfactant protein D and dyspnoea explained 35% ( R 2) of the variation in physical impact of fatigue. Current smoking and depression explained 33% ( R 2) of the cognitive impact of fatigue. Depression and surfactant protein D explained 48% ( R 2) of the psychosocial impact of fatigue.


          Experiences of fatigue and functional limitation due to fatigue seem to be related mainly to psychological but also to physiological influencing factors, with depressive symptoms, insomnia problems and dyspnoea as the most prominent factors. Systemic inflammation was not associated with perception of fatigue but surfactant protein D was connected to some dimensions of the impact of fatigue

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          Most cited references 47

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          Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

          Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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            Anxiety and depression in COPD: current understanding, unanswered questions, and research needs.

            Approximately 60 million people in the United States live with one of four chronic conditions: heart disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and major depression. Anxiety and depression are very common comorbidities in COPD and have significant impact on patients, their families, society, and the course of the disease. We report the proceedings of a multidisciplinary workshop on anxiety and depression in COPD that aimed to shed light on the current understanding of these comorbidities, and outline unanswered questions and areas of future research needs. Estimates of prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD vary widely but are generally higher than those reported in some other advanced chronic diseases. Untreated and undetected anxiety and depressive symptoms may increase physical disability, morbidity, and health-care utilization. Several patient, physician, and system barriers contribute to the underdiagnosis of these disorders in patients with COPD. While few published studies demonstrate that these disorders associated with COPD respond well to appropriate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapy, only a small proportion of COPD patients with these disorders receive effective treatment. Future research is needed to address the impact, early detection, and management of anxiety and depression in COPD.
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              Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD): some psychometric data for a Swedish sample.

              The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HAD) was evaluated in a Swedish population sample. The purpose of the study was to compare the HAD with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Spielberger's State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). A secondary aim was to examine the factor structure of the HAD. The results indicated that the factor structure was quite strong, consistently showing two factors in the whole sample as well as in different subsamples. The correlations between the total HAD scale and BDI and STAI, respectively, were stronger than those obtained using the different subscales of the HAD (the anxiety and depression subscales). As expected, there was also a stronger correlation between the HAD and the non-physical items of the BDI. It was somewhat surprising that the factor analyses were consistently extracting two factors, 'depression' and 'anxiety', while on the other hand both BDI and STAI tended to correlate more strongly with the total HAD score than with the specific depression and anxiety HAD subscales. Nevertheless, the HAD appeared to be (as was indeed originally intended) a useful clinical indicator of the possibility of depression and clinical anxiety.

                Author and article information

                Ther Adv Respir Dis
                Ther Adv Respir Dis
                Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
                SAGE Publications (Sage UK: London, England )
                01 September 2016
                October 2016
                : 10
                : 5
                : 410-424
                Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden, S-551 85 Jönköping, Sweden and Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping, Sweden
                Department of Respiratory Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden and Department of Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Skane University Hospital, Lund, Sweden
                Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden
                Department of Medicine, Division of Pulmonology, Ryhov County Hospital, Jönköping, Sweden
                Department of Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, Clinical Immunology, Linköping, Sweden
                Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Linköping University, Norrköping, Sweden
                Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing, Karlstad University and Primary Care Research Unit, County Council of Värmland, Karlstad, Sweden
                Author notes
                © The Author(s), 2016

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 License ( http://www.creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access page ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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