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      Nutzung der ambulanten Psychotherapie über die Videosprechstunde : Ein Drittel der Patienten wird nicht erreicht Translated title: Use of outpatient psychotherapy via video consultation : One third of the patients are not reached

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          Abstract

          Hintergrund

          Aufgrund der Hygienemaßnahmen während der Coronapandemie Anfang 2020 war Präsenzpsychotherapie vielerorts in Deutschland nicht mehr oder nur eingeschränkt möglich. Psychotherapie via Videokonferenz trat als alternative Versorgungsmöglichkeit an diese Stelle.

          Fragestellung

          Die vorliegende Studie beschäftigt sich mit der Frage der tatsächlichen Nutzung dieser Art von Psychotherapie während des Lockdowns.

          Material und Methode

          Durch Befragung von Behandlern in der psychotherapeutischen Ausbildungsambulanz der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover bezüglich ihrer Erfahrung sowie Erfahrung ihrer Patienten mit der Nutzung der Videosprechstunde während laufender Richtlinienpsychotherapie konnten Daten von 338 Patienten erhoben werden. Die Daten enthalten Angaben u. a. zur Annahme oder zur Ablehnung des Angebots der Videosprechstunde, zu Gründen der Ablehnung oder zu technischen Problemen bei der Durchführung.

          Ergebnisse

          Die präsentierten Daten zeigen, dass 35 % der Patienten von der Videosprechstunde nicht erreicht werden konnten. Circa die Hälfte der Patienten aus dieser Gruppe konnte aufgrund mangelnder technischer Ausstattung diese Therapieform nicht nutzen. Die andere Hälfte wünschte keine Therapie mithilfe der Videosprechstunde, obwohl die technischen Voraussetzungen dazu vorhanden waren. In der Gruppe der Nutzer der Videosprechstunde wurden in 31 % der Fälle die Sitzungen durch technische Störungen beeinträchtigt, und in weiteren 10 % der Fälle führten die Störungen sogar zur vorzeitigen Beendigung der Sitzung. Die vorgestellten Daten machen deutlich, dass mit steigendem Alter und sinkendem Bildungsniveau die Nutzung der Therapie über Videosprechstunde signifikant abnimmt.

          Schlussfolgerung

          Die Ergebnisse der vorliegenden Studie zeigen, dass trotz der Verbreitung der Videosprechstunde ein beträchtlicher Anteil der Patienten durch das Angebot nicht erreicht wird und somit im Fall weiterer Lockdowns Spezialangebote für diese Gruppe erwogen werden sollten. Die Autoren empfehlen Unterstützung durch Krankenkassen für Patienten, die über keine technischen Voraussetzungen verfügen. Patienten, die sich auf diese Form der Behandlung nicht einlassen wollten, brauchen therapeutisch motivierende Unterstützung.

          Zusatzmaterial online

          Die Online-Version dieses Beitrags (10.1007/s00278-021-00497-3) enthält folgendes Zusatzmaterial: Fragebogen zur Nutzung der Videosprechstunde in der ambulanten Psychotherapie. Beitrag und Zusatzmaterial stehen Ihnen auf www.springermedizin.de zur Verfügung. Bitte geben Sie dort den Beitragstitel in die Suche ein, das Zusatzmaterial finden Sie beim Beitrag unter „Ergänzende Inhalte“.

          Translated abstract

          Background

          Due to the hygiene measures during the coronavirus pandemic at the beginning of 2020, psychotherapy by personal attendance was no longer possible or only possible to a limited extent in many places in Germany. In its place, psychotherapy via video conference was used as an alternative option for treatment.

          Objective

          The present study was concerned with the question of the actual use of this form of psychotherapy during the lockdown.

          Material and methods

          Therapists in the psychotherapeutic training outpatient department of the Medical School of Hanover were questioned on their experiences and the experiences of patients with the use of the video consultation during running guideline psychotherapy. Data from 338 patents could be collated. The data contained information, for example on acceptance or rejection of the offer of a video consultation, on the reasons for rejection and on technical problems by the execution.

          Results

          The presented data show that 35% of patients could not be reached by the video consultation. Approximately half of the patients from this group could not use this form of therapy due to the lack of technical equipment. The other half did not want therapy using the video consultation, although the technical requirements were available. In the group of patients who used the video consultation, the session was interrupted due to technical disturbances in 31% of the cases. In a further 10% of the cases the disturbances even led to a premature termination of the session. The presented data make it clear that the use of therapy via video consultation significantly decreases with increasing age and reduced education level.

          Conclusion

          The results of the present study show that a considerable proportion of the patients could not be reached by the offer, despite the dissemination of the video consultation; therefore, in the case of further lockdowns special offers for this group should be considered. The authors recommend that the health insurance companies provide support for patients who do not have the technical requirements at their disposal. Patients who do not want to participate in this form of treatment need therapeutically motivating support.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

          Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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            The COVID-19 pandemic: The ‘black swan’ for mental health care and a turning point for e-health

            In February 2020, Duan and Zhu (2020) stressed the need for a solid Chinese evidence-based mental health care system in times of public health emergencies such as the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). That would enable treatment of people who suffer from mental health problems in relation to the epidemic. The WHO has meanwhile labelled the Coronavirus a pandemic, and it is now hitting Europe, the USA, and Australia hard as well. In an attempt to reduce the risk of infections, many mental health care providers in afflicted countries are currently closing their doors for patients who need ambulatory face-to-face therapy. They are simultaneously trying to replace some of these contacts with digital therapies. Most probably, European mental health care institutions have yet to experience the full impact of the coronavirus crisis. At the same time, the demand for mental health care among infected patients and their relatives is expected to rise (Blumenstyk, 2020). Levels of anxiety will increase, both through direct causes including fears of contamination, stress, grief, and depression triggered by exposure to the virus, and through influences from the consequences of the social and economic mayhem that is occurring on individual and societal levels. We expect that this “black swan” moment (Blumenstyk, 2020) - an unforeseen event that changes everything - will lead to a partly, though robust, shift in mental health care provision towards online prevention, treatment, and care in the near future. We also need to consider the role of psychological processes and fear that may cause further harm on top of the pandemic (Asmundson and Taylor, 2020). The obvious solution to continue mental health care within a pandemic is to provide mental health care at a ‘warm’ distance by video-conferencing psychotherapy and internet interventions. A systematic review showed that videoconferencing psychotherapy show promising results for anxiety and mood disorders (Berryhill et al., 2019), and the evidence-base for therapist-guided internet interventions is even stronger (Andersson, 2016). Yet, despite two decades of evidence-based e-mental health services, numerous barriers have stalled the overall implementation in routine care thus far (Vis et al., 2018; Tuerk et al., 2019). One of the most important barriers highlighted, however, has been that e-mental health has not been integrated as a normal part of routine care practice due to the lack of acceptance by health professionals themselves (Topooco et al., 2017). Myths on telehealth such as “the therapeutic alliance can only be established face-to-face” have dominated the field, in spite of research showing the opposite (Berger, 2017). In that sense, learning curves in the adoption of new e-mental health technologies by both patients and psychologists have progressed far more slowly than initially expected, thus tallying with the estimate that it takes on average16 years for a health care innovation to be implemented (Rogers et al., 2017). There are however exceptions in the world but progress is still slow. In the Netherlands and elsewhere, we are now witnessing a phenomenon whereby the outbreak of COVID-19 is hastening managers, ICT-staff, and clinicians to overcome all such barriers overnight, from a pragmatic standpoint seldom seen before. The virus seems a greater catalyst for the implementation of online therapy and e-health tools in routine practice than two decades of many brilliant, but failed, attempts in this domain (Mohr et al., 2018). After all, since predictions about COVID-19 are largely unclear as of yet, it is now time to create a longer-term solution to the problem of heterogeneous patient populations, such as those still active in the community and those that are house-bound or isolated in hospitals. Videoconferencing and internet interventions could therefore be very helpful in mental health care, as well as in physical care and can be easily upscaled to serve isolated regions and reach across borders. Thus, the “black swan virus” has already enabled wide-scale acceptance of videoconferencing by health professionals and patients alike – creating a win-win situation for both. We should stress that e-mental health applications hold value far beyond the provision of videoconferencing psychotherapy in the current situation of crisis. Countries hit by the Corona virus may also consider adopting a wider public e-mental health approach, which would focus additionally on prevention and on reaching people at risk for mental health disorders. In this respect, not only guided but also fully self-guided interventions, such as self-help apps or online therapeutic modules, could also be applied in settings and countries with scarce mental health resources (Christiani and Setiawan, 2018). We should also consider the need for treatment development (for the psychological problems caused by corona virus isolation), which is by far more rapid in the field of internet interventions than in traditional psychotherapy (Andersson et al., 2018). It is likely that the response to this emergency will be more than a temporary increase in online work (Blumenstyk, 2020). Once mental health care institutions have developed the capabilities of serving their patients via videoconferencing and other digital technologies, there is little reason for them to give these up, in view of the many advantages (Blumenstyk, 2020; Tuerk et al., 2019). This black swan should be a call for action by encouraging providers to move more rapidly towards blended care models (van der Vaart et al., 2014; Kooistra et al., 2019). Agility, flexibility, and resilience are essential skills for 21-st-century institutions, particularly when unforeseen disruptive viruses and devastating events driven by climate change are likely to be increasingly common (Blumenstyk, 2020). We urge practitioners to promptly start adopting e-mental health care applications, both as methods to continue their care to current patients in need and as interventions to cope with the imminent upsurge in mental health symptoms due to the coronavirus. Uncited reference Karyotaki et al., 2018
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              The effectiveness of telemental health: a 2013 review.

              The effectiveness of any new technology is typically measured in order to determine whether it successfully achieves equal or superior objectives over what is currently offered. Research in telemental health-in this article mainly referring to telepsychiatry and psychological services-has advanced rapidly since 2003, and a new effectiveness review is needed. The authors reviewed the published literature to synthesize information on what is and what is not effective related to telemental health. Terms for the search included, but were not limited to, telepsychiatry, effectiveness, mental health, e-health, videoconferencing, telemedicine, cost, access, and international. Telemental health is effective for diagnosis and assessment across many populations (adult, child, geriatric, and ethnic) and for disorders in many settings (emergency, home health) and appears to be comparable to in-person care. In addition, this review has identified new models of care (i.e., collaborative care, asynchronous, mobile) with equally positive outcomes. Telemental health is effective and increases access to care. Future directions suggest the need for more research on service models, specific disorders, the issues relevant to culture and language, and cost.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                szycik.gregor@mh-hannover.de
                Journal
                Psychotherapeut (Berl)
                Psychotherapeut (Berl)
                Psychotherapeut
                Springer Medizin (Heidelberg )
                0935-6185
                1432-2080
                22 February 2021
                : 1-6
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.10423.34, ISNI 0000 0000 9529 9877, Klinik für Psychiatrie, Sozialpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, , Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, ; Hannover, Deutschland
                [2 ]GRID grid.10423.34, ISNI 0000 0000 9529 9877, Klinik für Psychiatrie, Sozialpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, , Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Zentrum für Seelische Gesundheit, ; Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Deutschland
                Article
                497
                10.1007/s00278-021-00497-3
                7898015
                © Springer Medizin Verlag GmbH, ein Teil von Springer Nature 2021

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                Categories
                Schwerpunkt: Psychosoziale Folgen der COVID-19 Pandemie - Behandlungsprobleme

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