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      Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

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          Abstract

          Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA ® and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge ® could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids.

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          Prevalence of various respiratory viruses in the middle ear during acute otitis media.

          Vaccines against respiratory viruses may be able to reduce the frequency of acute otitis media. Although the role of respiratory viruses in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media is well established, the relative importance of various viruses is unknown. We determined the prevalence of various respiratory viruses in the middle-ear fluid in 456 children (age, two months to seven years) with acute otitis media. At enrollment and after two to five days of antibiotic therapy, specimens of middle-ear fluid and nasal-wash specimens were obtained for viral and bacterial cultures and the detection of viral antigens. The viral cause of the infections was also assessed by serologic studies of serum samples obtained during the acute illness and convalescence. A specific viral cause of the respiratory tract infections was identified in 186 of the 456 children (41 percent). Respiratory syncytial virus was the most common virus identified in middle-ear fluid: it was detected in the middle-ear fluid of 48 of the 65 children (74 percent) infected by this virus (P< or =0.04 for the comparison with any other virus). Parainfluenza viruses (15 of 29 children [52 percent]) and influenzaviruses (10 of 24 children [42 percent]) were detected in the middle-ear fluid significantly more often than enteroviruses (3 of 27 children [11 percent]) or adenoviruses (1 of 23 children [4 percent]) (P< or =0.01 for all comparisons). Respiratory syncytial virus is the principal virus invading the middle ear during acute otitis media. An effective vaccine against upper respiratory tract infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus may reduce the incidence of acute otitis media in children.
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            Otitis media.

            Otitis media (OM) continues to be one of the most common childhood infections and is a major cause of morbidity in children. The pathogenesis of OM is multifactorial, involving the adaptive and native immune system, Eustachian-tube dysfunction, viral and bacterial load, and genetic and environmental factors. Initial observation seems to be suitable for many children with OM, but only if appropriate follow-up can be assured. In children younger than 2 years with a certain diagnosis of acute OM, antibiotics are advised. Surgical candidacy depends on associated symptoms, the child's developmental risk, and the anticipated chance of timely spontaneous resolution of the effusion. The recommended approach for surgery is to start with tympanostomy tube placement, eventually followed by adenoidectomy. The ideal intervention for OM, however, does not yet exist, and an urgent need remains to explore new and creative options based on modern insights into the pathophysiology of OM.
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              Epidemiology of otitis media during the first seven years of life in children in greater Boston: a prospective, cohort study.

              To determine the epidemiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and duration of middle ear effusion (MEE), we followed consecutively enrolled children from shortly after birth until 7 y of age. Because some children dropped out of the study, data were analyzed for 877 children observed for at least 1 y; 698 were observed for at least 3 y, and 498 were observed until 7 y of age. By 1 y of age, 62% of the children had greater than or equal to 1 episode of AOM and 17% had greater than or equal to 3 episodes; by 3 y of age, 83% had greater than or equal to 1 episode of AOM and 46% had greater than or equal to 3 episodes. The peak incidence occurred during the second 6-mo period of life. Significantly increased risk (by multivariate analysis) for AOM was associated with male gender, sibling history of recurrent AOM, early occurrence of AOM, and not being breast fed. MEE persisted after onset of AOM for weeks to months; prolonged duration of MEE was associated with male gender, sibling history of ear infection, and not being breast fed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg
                GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg
                GMS Curr Top Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Surg
                GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                1865-1011
                01 December 2014
                2014
                : 13
                : Doc11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Ruhr-University Bochum, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Bochum, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Amir Minovi, Klinik für Hals- Nasen- Ohrenheilkunde, Kopf- und Halschirurgie der Ruhr Universität Bochum, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Bleichstr. 15, 44787 Bochum, Germany, Phone: +49-234-5098281, Fax: +49-234-50987, E-mail: amir.minovi@ 123456rub.de
                Article
                cto000114 Doc11 urn:nbn:de:0183-cto0001144
                10.3205/cto000114
                4273172
                25587371
                1d20573e-40b1-416b-989e-ad1d1ee24381
                Copyright © 2014 Minovi et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). You are free to copy, distribute and transmit the work, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                Categories
                Article

                Surgery
                children,otitis media,mastoiditis,cholesteatoma,implantable hearing aids
                Surgery
                children, otitis media, mastoiditis, cholesteatoma, implantable hearing aids

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