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      Immune checkpoint blockade: a common denominator approach to cancer therapy.

      Cancer Cell

      physiology, Antibodies, Monoclonal, pharmacology, therapeutic use, Antigens, CD28, antagonists & inhibitors, immunology, Antineoplastic Agents, CTLA-4 Antigen, Humans, Immunotherapy, Models, Immunological, Neoplasms, Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor

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          Abstract

          The immune system recognizes and is poised to eliminate cancer but is held in check by inhibitory receptors and ligands. These immune checkpoint pathways, which normally maintain self-tolerance and limit collateral tissue damage during anti-microbial immune responses, can be co-opted by cancer to evade immune destruction. Drugs interrupting immune checkpoints, such as anti-CTLA-4, anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1, and others in early development, can unleash anti-tumor immunity and mediate durable cancer regressions. The complex biology of immune checkpoint pathways still contains many mysteries, and the full activity spectrum of checkpoint-blocking drugs, used alone or in combination, is currently the subject of intense study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          25858804
          4400238
          10.1016/j.ccell.2015.03.001

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