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      Self-Medication and Associated Factors Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care at Kemisie General Hospital, North East Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          Self-medication is an important part of daily self-care, without the supervision of health professionals. It is commonly practiced by pregnant women all over the world and may result in maternal and fetal risks. Hence, this study assessed self-medication practices and associated factors among pregnant women attending Kemisie General Hospital.

          Methods

          A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted using a structured questionnaire on pregnant women who were attending antenatal care at Kemisie General Hospital. A simple random sampling technique was employed to select the study participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were computed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.

          Results

          Among 223 pregnant women, 60 (26.9%; 95% CI: 20.9%, 32.9%) and 111 (48.9%; 95% CI: 43%, 58%) practiced self-medication on conventional and herbal medicine, respectively. The predictors of self-medication of conventional medicine among pregnant women were prior experience to the drug (P-value: 0.00, AOR=126.04, 95% CI: 32.55–488.04) and no pervious history of abortion (P-value: 0.00, AOR=0.01,95% CI:0.002–0.04), while college educational level (P-value: 0.00, AOR=13.45,95%, CI: 3.58–50.5), history prior herbal medicine use (P-value: 0.00, AOR=9, 95% CI: 3.32–24.39), Ruta chalepensis (P-value:0.001,AOR=193.7,95% CI:8.64–4342.1) and Ocimum lamiifolium type of herb use (P-value: 0.004, AOR=12.72, 95% CI: 2.27–71.38), and 5–10km health facility distance (P-value:0.022, AOR=0.1, 95% CI: 0.01–0.73) were predictors for self-medication practice of herbal medicines among pregnant women.

          Conclusion

          Nearly one-third and two-third of pregnant women practiced self-medication on conventional and herbal medicine, respectively. Prior experience to the drug and no previous history of abortion associated with self-medication of conventional medicine, while college educational level, history prior herbal medicine use, Ruta chalepensis and, Ocimum lamiifolium type of herb use, and 5–10km distance were predictors for self-medication practice of herbal medicines. Improving health service coverage and awareness creation on rational medication use is recommended to prevent fetal and maternal risks.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Herbal Medicine Today: Clinical and Research Issues

          Herbal medicine is the use of medicinal plants for prevention and treatment of diseases: it ranges from traditional and popular medicines of every country to the use of standardized and tritated herbal extracts. Generally cultural rootedness enduring and widespread use in a Traditional Medical System may indicate safety, but not efficacy of treatments, especially in herbal medicine where tradition is almost completely based on remedies containing active principles at very low and ultra low concentrations, or relying on magical-energetic principles. In the age of globalization and of the so-called ‘plate world’, assessing the ‘transferability’ of treatments between different cultures is not a relevant goal for clinical research, while are the assessment of efficacy and safety that should be based on the regular patterns of mainstream clinical medicine. The other black box of herbal-based treatments is the lack of definite and complete information about the composition of extracts. Herbal derived remedies need a powerful and deep assessment of their pharmacological qualities and safety that actually can be realized by new biologic technologies like pharmacogenomic, metabolomic and microarray methology. Because of the large and growing use of natural derived substances in all over the world, it is not wise to rely also on the tradition or supposed millenarian beliefs; explanatory and pragmatic studies are useful and should be considered complementary in the acquisition of reliable data both for health caregiver and patients.
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            Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review

            Background Self-medication patterns vary among different populations, and are influenced by many factors. No review has been done that comprehensively expresses self-medication practice in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on self-medication practice in Ethiopia. Materials and methods Databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and Hinari) were searched for published studies on the practice of self-medication in Ethiopia without restriction in the year of publication or methodology. Some studies were also identified through manual Google search. Primary search terms were “self medication”, “Ethiopia”, “self care”, “non-prescription”, “OTC drug use”, “drug utilization”, and “drug hoarding”. Studies that measured knowledge only or attitude only or beliefs only and did not determine the practice of self-medication were excluded. Results The database search produced a total of 450 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 articles were found suitable for the review. All studies were cross-sectional in nature. The prevalence of self-medication varied from 12.8% to 77.1%, with an average of 36.8%. Fever/headache, gastrointestinal tract diseases, and respiratory diseases were the commonest illnesses/symptoms for which self-medication was taken. The major reasons for practicing self-medication were previous experience of treating a similar illness and feeling that the illness was mild. Analgesics/antipyretics, antimicrobials, gastrointestinal drugs, and respiratory drugs were the common drug classes used in self-medication. Mainly, these drugs were obtained from drug-retail outlets. The use of self-medication was commonly suggested by pharmacy professionals and friends/relatives. Conclusion Self-medication practice is prevalent in Ethiopia and varies in different populations and regions of the country. Some of the self-medication practices are harmful and need prompt action. Special attention should be given to educating the public and health care providers on the types of illnesses that can be self-diagnosed and self-treated and the types of drugs to be used for self-medication.
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              Self-Medication: potential risks and hazards among pregnant women in Uyo, Nigeria

              Introduction There is increasing evidence that self-medications among pregnant women are common in many developing countries. Despite the adverse impact on pregnancy, there are few programs available for their control. The objective of this study was to assess the level of self-medication amongst Nigerian pregnant women in order to determine possible harmful effects on fetus. Methods Five hundred and eighteen 518 pregnant women, aged between 18 and 40 years, drawn from three General hospitals in Akwa Ibom State were assessed for self-medication and substance abuse using an instrument, adapted from a modified form of 117-item self-report questionnaire based on the WHO guidelines for students’ substance use survey. Results Of the 518 pregnant women assessed, 375 (72.4%) indulged in one form of self-medication or the other; 143 (27.6%) used only drugs prescribed from the antenatal clinic. A total of 157 (41.9%) pregnant women self-medicate fever/pain relievers; 47 (9.1%) mixture of herbs and other drugs; 15 (4.0%) sedatives; 13 (3.5%) alcohol; while 5 (1.3%) used kolanuts. Reasons for using these substances range from protection from witches and witchcrafts, preventing pregnancy from coming out, for blood; poor sleep, fever and vomiting and infections. There was a significant difference in the rate of using analgesics (X2=9.43, p=0.001); and antibiotic (X2=4.43, p=0.001) among pregnant women who were highly educated compared to those with little or no education. However, the level of education has no impact in the usage of native herbs. Conclusion This study shows that self-medication is common among pregnant women in our environment. There is need for adequate education of pregnant women during antenatal clinics on the potential danger of self-medication so as to prevent child and maternal morbidity and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Patient Prefer Adherence
                Patient Prefer Adherence
                ppa
                ppa
                Patient preference and adherence
                Dove
                1177-889X
                16 October 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1969-1978
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University , Dessie, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Solomon Ahmed MohammedDepartment of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Science, Wollo University , Dessie1145, EthiopiaTel +251910504378 Email solomon.ahmed@wu.edu.et
                Article
                277098
                10.2147/PPA.S277098
                7584511
                33116440
                © 2020 Tuha et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 9, References: 35, Pages: 10
                Funding
                Funded by: no funding;
                There is no funding to report.
                Categories
                Original Research

                Medicine

                self-medication, conventional medicine, herbal medicine, pregnant women

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