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      Prevalence, risk factors, and medical costs of Chlamydia trachomatis infections in Shandong Province, China: a population-based, cross-sectional study

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          Abstract

          Background

          A population-based study of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infections is essential in designing a specific control program; however, no large investigation of CT infections among the general population in mainland China has been conducted since 2000. We aimed to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and associated medical costs of CT among residents, 18–49 years of age, in Shandong, China.

          Methods

          From May to August 2016, a multistage probability sampling survey involving 8074 individuals was distributed. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews, followed by self-administered questionnaire surveys. First-void urines were collected and tested for CT and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) using nucleic acid amplification.

          Results

          The weighted prevalence of CT infection was 2.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5–3.2) in females and 2.7% (1.6–3.8) in males. Women, 30–34 years of age, had the highest prevalence of CT infections (3.5%, 2.6–4.4), while the highest prevalence of CT infections in males was in those 18–24 years of age (4.3%, 0.0–8.8). Neisseria gonorrhoeae infection had a prevalence of 0.1% (0.0–0.3) in women and 0.03% (0.0–0.1) in men. Risk factors for CT infections among females included being unmarried, divorced, or widowed (odds ratio [OR], 95% CI 3.57, 1.54–8.24) and having two or more lifetime sex partners (3.72, 1.14–12.16). Among males, first intercourse before 20 years of age (1.83, 1.10–3.02) and having two or more lifetime sex partners (1.85, 1.14–3.02) were associated with CT infections. The estimated lifetime cost of CT infections in patients 18–49 years of age in Shandong was 273 million (range, 172–374 million) China Renminbi in 2016.

          Conclusions

          This study demonstrated a high burden of CT infections among females < 35 years of age and males < 25 years of age in Shandong. Thus, a CT infection control program should focus on this population, as well as others with identified risk factors.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12879-018-3432-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 32

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          Risk of sequelae after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women.

          Chlamydia trachomatis infection, the most common reportable disease in the United States, can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. Although C. trachomatis is identified among many women who receive a diagnosis of PID, the incidence and timing of PID and long-term sequelae from an untreated chlamydial infection have not been fully determined. This article examines evidence reviewed as part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Chlamydia Immunology and Control Expert Advisory Meeting; 24 reports were included. We found no prospective studies directly assessing risk of long-term reproductive sequelae, such as infertility, after untreated C. trachomatis infection. Several studies assessed PID diagnosis after untreated chlamydial infection, but rates varied widely, making it difficult to determine an overall estimate. In high-risk settings, 2%-5% of untreated women developed PID within the approximately 2-week period between testing positive for C. trachomatis and returning for treatment. However, the rate of PID progression in the general, asymptomatic population followed up for longer periods appeared to be low. According to the largest studies, after symptomatic PID of any cause has occurred, up to 18% of women may develop infertility. In several studies, repeated chlamydial infection was associated with PID and other reproductive sequelae, although it was difficult to determine whether the risk per infection increased with each recurrent episode. The present review critically evaluates this body of literature and suggests future research directions. Specifically, prospective studies assessing rates of symptomatic PID, subclinical tubal damage, and long-term reproductive sequelae after C. trachomatis infection; better tools to measure PID and tubal damage; and studies on the natural history of repeated chlamydial infections are needed.
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            Prevalence, risk factors, and uptake of interventions for sexually transmitted infections in Britain: findings from the National Surveys of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal)

            Summary Background Population-based estimates of prevalence, risk distribution, and intervention uptake inform delivery of control programmes for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We undertook the third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3) after implementation of national sexual health strategies, and describe the epidemiology of four STIs in Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and the uptake of interventions. Methods Between Sept 6, 2010 and Aug 31, 2012, we did a probability sample survey of 15 162 women and men aged 16–74 years in Britain. Participants were interviewed with computer-assisted face-to-face and self-completion questionnaires. Urine from a sample of participants aged 16–44 years who reported at least one sexual partner over the lifetime was tested for the presence of Chlamydia trachomatis, type-specific human papillomavirus (HPV), Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and HIV antibody. We describe age-specific and sex-specific prevalences of infection and intervention uptake, in relation to demographic and behavioural factors, and explore changes since Natsal-1 (1990–91) and Natsal-2 (1999–2001). Findings Of 8047 eligible participants invited to provide a urine sample, 4828 (60%) agreed. We excluded 278 samples, leaving 4550 (94%) participants with STI test results. Chlamydia prevalence was 1·5% (95% CI 1·1–2·0) in women and 1·1% (0·7–1·6) in men. Prevalences in individuals aged 16–24 years were 3·1% (2·2–4·3) in women and 2·3% (1·5–3·4) in men. Area-level deprivation and higher numbers of partners, especially without use of condoms, were risk factors. However, 60·4% (45·5–73·7) of chlamydia in women and 43·3% (25·9–62·5) in men was in individuals who had had one partner in the past year. Among sexually active 16–24-year-olds, 54·2% (51·4–56·9) of women and 34·6% (31·8–37·4) of men reported testing for chlamydia in the past year, with testing higher in those with more partners. High-risk HPV was detected in 15·9% (14·4–17·5) of women, similar to in Natsal-2. Coverage of HPV catch-up vaccination was 61·5% (58·2–64·7). Prevalence of HPV types 16 and 18 in women aged 18–20 years was lower in Natsal-3 than Natsal-2 (5·8% [3·9–8·6] vs 11·3% [6·8–18·2]; age-adjusted odds ratio 0·44 [0·21–0·94]). Gonorrhoea (<0·1% prevalence in women and men) and HIV (0·1% prevalence in women and 0·2% in men) were uncommon and restricted to participants with recognised high-risk factors. Since Natsal-2, substantial increases were noted in attendance at sexual health clinics (from 6·7% to 21·4% in women and from 7·7% to 19·6% in men) and HIV testing (from 8·7% to 27·6% in women and from 9·2% to 16·9% in men) in the past 5 years. Interpretation STIs were distributed heterogeneously, requiring general and infection-specific interventions. Increases in testing and attendance at sexual health clinics, especially in people at highest risk, are encouraging. However, STIs persist both in individuals accessing and those not accessing services. Our findings provide empirical evidence to inform future sexual health interventions and services. Funding Grants from the UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust, with support from the Economic and Social Research Council and the Department of Health.
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              Sexually transmitted infections: challenges ahead.

              WHO estimated that nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of four curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs): chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Despite their high global incidence, STIs remain a neglected area of research. In this Commission, we have prioritised five areas that represent particular challenges in STI treatment and control. Chlamydia remains the most commonly diagnosed bacterial STI in high-income countries despite widespread testing recommendations, sensitive and specific non-invasive testing techniques, and cheap effective therapy. We discuss the challenges for chlamydia control and evidence to support a shift from the current focus on infection-based screening to improved management of diagnosed cases and of chlamydial morbidity, such as pelvic inflammatory disease. The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae is globally recognised. We review current and potential future control and treatment strategies, with a focus on novel antimicrobials. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal disorder in women, but current treatments are associated with frequent recurrence. Recurrence after treatment might relate to evidence that suggests sexual transmission is integral to the pathogenesis of bacterial vaginosis, which has substantial implications for the development of effective management approaches. STIs disproportionately affect low-income and middle-income countries. We review strategies for case management, focusing on point-of-care tests that hold considerable potential for improving STI control. Lastly, STIs in men who have sex with men have increased since the late 1990s. We discuss the contribution of new biomedical HIV prevention strategies and risk compensation. Overall, this Commission aims to enhance the understanding of some of the key challenges facing the field of STIs, and outlines new approaches to improve the clinical management of STIs and public health.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                huaipengcheng@163.com
                lfr2008@foxmail.com
                lizhen19871012@163.com
                438065194@qq.com
                f19830827@126.com
                349385789@qq.com
                yugongitje@163.com
                359342307@qq.com
                tongshengchu@163.com
                mizihao2015@126.com
                baofangfang2008@163.com
                hongleiwang86@163.com
                383118538@qq.com
                wangchuan86@126.com
                suohandong@126.com
                miss2001flyn@126.com
                zhangyuanbj@sina.cn
                1259934806@qq.com
                289308838@qq.com
                472634899@qq.com
                zhaohui7867@qq.com
                1558179042@qq.com
                hongyue2519@hotmail.com
                dianchangliu@163.com
                liujian751123@163.com
                aqxuepi@163.com
                +86531-87298801 , zhangfuren@hotmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infect. Dis
                BMC Infectious Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2334
                26 October 2018
                26 October 2018
                2018
                : 18
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 1174, GRID grid.27255.37, Shandong Provincial Hospital for Skin Disease, , Shandong University, ; Jinan, China
                [2 ]GRID grid.410587.f, Shandong Provincial Institute of Dermatology and Venereology, Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences, ; 27397 Jingshi Road, Jinan, 250022 China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 1174, GRID grid.27255.37, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, , Shandong University, ; Jinan, China
                [4 ]Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory for Dermatovenereology, Jinan, China
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8803 2373, GRID grid.198530.6, Shandong Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ; Jinan, China
                Article
                3432
                10.1186/s12879-018-3432-y
                6204023
                30367605
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: The National Key Research and Development Program of China
                Award ID: 2016YFE0201500
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: The Innovation Project of Shandong Academy of Medical Sciences
                Funded by: The Syphilis and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Control Research in Shandong
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2018

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