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      A Rat Model with Multivalve Calcification Induced by Subtotal Nephrectomy and High-Phosphorus Diet

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          Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) with known valve calcification (VC) places individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease. The study of VC in CKD is challenging due to the lack of a suitable research model. Here, we established a rat model of multivalve calcification induced by subtotal nephrectomy and a high-phosphate (HP) diet and analyzed the valve characteristics. Methods: We established a CKD model in Sprague-Dawley rats by performing 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx) followed by feeding with chow containing different phosphate concentrations for 8, 12, or 16 weeks. The rats were divided into 4 groups: sham+normal phosphate (NP, 0.9% P), sham+high phosphate (HP, 2.0% P), 5/6Nx+NP, and 5/6Nx+HP. Serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorus, and 24-h urine protein levels were investigated. Pathological examinations included histological characterization, safranin staining, Alcian blue staining, and von Kossa staining at different time points. Using nanoanalytical electron microscopy, we examined valves from rats in the 5/6Nx+HP and sham+HP groups and detected spherical particles using energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to observe microscopic changes in the valves. In addition, the calcified tissues were analyzed for phase and crystallization properties using an X-ray powder diffractometer. Results: The rats in the 5/6Nx+HP and 5/6Nx+NP groups presented with increased levels of Scr, BUN, and 24-h urine protein compared with those of the rats in the sham+HP and sham+NP groups. High levels of PTH were observed, and hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for proliferating cell nuclear antigen showed parathyroid hyperplasia in rats in the 5/6Nx+HP group but not in the 5/6Nx+NP group. In rats in the 5/6Nx+HP group, extracellular matrix glycosylation was observed in the aortic valve in the 12th week and the mitral valve in the 16th week. In the 16th week, chondrocytes appeared in the aortic valve, as confirmed by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Calcified particles mainly composed of phosphorus and calcium were observed in both the aortic and mitral valves by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The main mineral component of the calcified aortic valve particles was hydroxyapatite [Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>(OH)], as shown by X-ray diffraction. However, there were no obvious differences in heart function between rats in the 5/6Nx+HP and sham+HP groups. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that multivalve calcification is involved in CKD following 16-week HP and that hydroxyapatite [Ca<sub>5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>(OH)] is the main component of the calcified aortic valve particles of rats in the 5/6Nx+HP group.

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          Most cited references 27

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          Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease–Mineral and Bone Disorder: Synopsis of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update

          The Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2017 Clinical Practice Guideline Update for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, Prevention, and Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD) is a selective update of the prior CKD-MBD guideline published in 2009. The guideline update and the original publication are intended to assist practitioners caring for adults with CKD and those receiving long-term dialysis.
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            Early chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder stimulates vascular calcification

            The chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) syndrome is an extremely important complication of kidney diseases. Here we tested whether CKD-MBD causes vascular calcification in early kidney failure by developing a mouse model of early CKD in a background of atherosclerosis stimulated arterial calcification. CKD equivalent in glomerular filtration reduction to human CKD stage 2 stimulated early vascular calcification and inhibited the tissue expression of α-klotho (klotho) in the aorta. In addition, osteoblast transition in the aorta was stimulated by early CKD as shown by the expression of the critical transcription factor, RUNX2. The ligand associated with the klotho-fibroblast growth factor receptor complex, FGF23, was found to be expressed in the vascular media of sham operated mice. Its expression was decreased in early CKD. Increased circulating levels of the osteocyte secreted proteins, FGF23, and sclerostin may have been related to increased circulating klotho levels. Finally, we observed low turnover bone disease with a reduction in bone formation rates more than bone resorption. Thus, the CKD-MBD, characterized by cardiovascular risk factors, vascular calcification, increased circulating klotho, FGF23 and sclerostin levels, and low turnover renal osteodystrophy, was established in early CKD. Early CKD caused a reduction of vascular klotho, stimulated vascular osteoblastic transition, increased osteocytic secreted proteins, and inhibited skeletal modeling producing the CKD-MBD.
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              Transcriptional profiles of valvular and vascular endothelial cells reveal phenotypic differences: influence of shear stress.

              The similarities between valvular and vascular lesions suggest pathological initiation mediated through endothelium, but the role of hemodynamics in valvular endothelial biology is poorly understood. Monolayers of porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAECs) or porcine aortic valve endothelial cells (PAVECs) were exposed to 20 dyne/cm2 steady laminar shear stress for 48 hours, with static cultures serving as controls. Multiple microarray comparisons were made using RNA from sheared and control batches of both cell types. More than 400 genes were significantly differentially expressed in each comparison group. The resulting profiles were validated at the transcription and protein level and expression patterns confirmed in vivo by immunohistochemistry. PAVECs were found to be less intrinsically inflammatory than PAECs, but both cell types expressed similar antioxidant and antiinflammatory genes in response to shear stress. PAVECs expressed more genes associated with chondrogenesis, whereas PAECs expressed osteogenic genes, and shear stress had a protective effect against calcification. Transcriptional differences between PAVECs and PAECs highlight the valvular endothelial cell as a distinct organ system and suggest more attention needs to be given to valvular cells to further our understanding of similarities and differences between valvular and vascular pathology.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Diseases
                S. Karger AG
                September 2020
                10 July 2020
                : 6
                : 5
                : 346-354
                aInstitute of Nephrology, Zhong Da Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
                bInstitute of Nephrology, NanJing LiShui People’s Hospital, Zhongda Hospital Lishui Branch, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
                cState Key Laboratory for Modification of Chemical Fibers and Polymer Materials, International Joint Laboratory for Advanced Fiber and Low-Dimension Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai, China
                dExperimental Animal Centers School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing, China
                Author notes
                *Rining Tang, Institute of Nephrology, NanJing LiShui People’s Hospital, Zhongda Hospital Lishui Branch, School of Medicine, Southeast University, No. 87 Dingjiaqiqoa, Nanjing (China), tangrn77@163.com
                506013 Kidney Dis 2020;6:346–354
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Research Article


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