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      Ethnobotanical Survey of Natural Galactagogues Prescribed in Traditional Chinese Medicine Pharmacies in Taiwan


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          Natural medicinal materials have been used to promote breast milk secretion. Here, we investigated the natural medicinal materials prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) pharmacies across Taiwan to induce lactation. We collected medicinal materials from 87 TCM pharmacies, identified them in the prescriptions, and analyzed their drug contents. We examined their botanical origins, biological classifications, traditional usage, and modern pharmacological properties. We used the TCM Inheritance Support System to identify core medicinal materials in galactogenous prescriptions. We collected 81 medicinal materials from 90 galactogenous prescriptions. Leguminosae accounted for 12%, whereas Apiaceae accounted for 7% of all materials examined. The primary medicinal plant parts used were roots and seeds. Nineteen frequently used medicinal materials had a relative frequency of citation of greater than or equal to 0.2. According to their efficacy, 58% were warm, 54% were sweet, and 63% were tonifying; 74% of the frequently used medicinal materials have been showed efficacy against breast cancer. The primary core medicinal material was Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels, whereas the secondary core medicinal materials were Tetrapanax papyrifer (Hook.) K. Koch and Hedysarum polybotrys Hand.-Mazz. Most galactogenous prescriptions consisted of multiple materials from Leguminosae and Apiaceae. The mechanisms underlying galactogenous efficacy warrant further investigations.

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          Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

          The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor.
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              Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China


                Author and article information

                Front Pharmacol
                Front Pharmacol
                Front. Pharmacol.
                Frontiers in Pharmacology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                12 February 2021
                : 11
                [ 1 ]Department of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences and Chinese Medicine Resources, Chinese Medicine Research Center, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 2 ]School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 3 ]Institute of New Drug Development, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 4 ]Tsuzuki Institute for Traditional Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 5 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Nihon Pharmaceutical University, Saitama, Japan
                [ 6 ]Department of Pharmacy, Kinmen Hospital, Kinmen, Taiwan
                [ 7 ]College of Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 8 ]Department of Pharmacy, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan
                [ 9 ]Department of Food Nutrition and Health Biotechnology, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 10 ]Department of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan
                [ 11 ]School of Post-Baccalaureate Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Yue Liu, Xiyuan Hospital, China

                Reviewed by: Yanming Wei, Gansu Agricultural University, China

                Armando Caceres, Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Guatemala

                *Correspondence: Shyh-Shyun Huang, sshuang@ 123456mail.cmu.edu.tw ; Shan-Yu Su, shanyusu@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Ethnopharmacology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Pharmacology

                Copyright © 2021 Chao, Ko, Lin, Tomoji, Huang, Chiang, Yang, Huang and Su.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                breastfeeding,ethnobotanical,galactagogues,taiwan,traditional chinese medicine pharmacy


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