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      The Buzz about ADP-Ribosylation Toxins from Paenibacillus larvae, the Causative Agent of American Foulbrood in Honey Bees


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          The Gram-positive, spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae is the etiological agent of American Foulbrood, a highly contagious and often fatal honey bee brood disease. The species P. larvae comprises five so-called ERIC-genotypes which differ in virulence and pathogenesis strategies. In the past two decades, the identification and characterization of several P. larvae virulence factors have led to considerable progress in understanding the molecular basis of pathogen-host-interactions during P. larvae infections. Among these virulence factors are three ADP-ribosylating AB-toxins, Plx1, Plx2, and C3larvin. Plx1 is a phage-born toxin highly homologous to the pierisin-like AB-toxins expressed by the whites-and-yellows family Pieridae (Lepidoptera, Insecta) and to scabin expressed by the plant pathogen Streptomyces scabiei. These toxins ADP-ribosylate DNA and thus induce apoptosis. While the presumed cellular target of Plx1 still awaits final experimental proof, the classification of the A subunits of the binary AB-toxins Plx2 and C3larvin as typical C3-like toxins, which ADP-ribosylate Rho-proteins, has been confirmed experimentally. Normally, C3-exoenzymes do not occur together with a B subunit partner, but as single domain toxins. Interestingly, the B subunits of the two P. larvae C3-like toxins are homologous to the B-subunits of C2-like toxins with striking structural similarity to the PA-63 protomer of Bacillus anthracis.

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          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            A new approach to rapid sequence comparison, basic local alignment search tool (BLAST), directly approximates alignments that optimize a measure of local similarity, the maximal segment pair (MSP) score. Recent mathematical results on the stochastic properties of MSP scores allow an analysis of the performance of this method as well as the statistical significance of alignments it generates. The basic algorithm is simple and robust; it can be implemented in a number of ways and applied in a variety of contexts including straightforward DNA and protein sequence database searches, motif searches, gene identification searches, and in the analysis of multiple regions of similarity in long DNA sequences. In addition to its flexibility and tractability to mathematical analysis, BLAST is an order of magnitude faster than existing sequence comparison tools of comparable sensitivity.
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              Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs.

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              The BLAST programs are widely used tools for searching protein and DNA databases for sequence similarities. For protein comparisons, a variety of definitional, algorithmic and statistical refinements described here permits the execution time of the BLAST programs to be decreased substantially while enhancing their sensitivity to weak similarities. A new criterion for triggering the extension of word hits, combined with a new heuristic for generating gapped alignments, yields a gapped BLAST program that runs at approximately three times the speed of the original. In addition, a method is introduced for automatically combining statistically significant alignments produced by BLAST into a position-specific score matrix, and searching the database using this matrix. The resulting Position-Specific Iterated BLAST (PSI-BLAST) program runs at approximately the same speed per iteration as gapped BLAST, but in many cases is much more sensitive to weak but biologically relevant sequence similarities. PSI-BLAST is used to uncover several new and interesting members of the BRCT superfamily.

                Author and article information

                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                16 February 2021
                February 2021
                : 13
                : 2
                : 151
                [1 ]Department of Molecular Microbiology and Bee Diseases, Institute for Bee Research, 16540 Hohen Neuendorf, Germany; julia.ebeling@ 123456hu-berlin.de (J.E.); anne.fuenfhaus@ 123456hu-berlin.de (A.F.)
                [2 ]Department of Veterinary Medicine, Institute of Microbiology and Epizootics, Freie Universität Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: elke.genersch@ 123456hu-berlin.de ; Tel.: +49-3303-293833
                Author information
                © 2021 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 12 January 2021
                : 11 February 2021

                Molecular medicine
                adp-ribosylation,bacterial toxins,american foulbrood,paenibacillus larvae,honey bee disease


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