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      Neurotrauma and Inflammation: CNS and PNS Responses

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          Abstract

          Traumatic injury to the central nervous system (CNS) or the peripheral nervous system (PNS) triggers a cascade of events which culminate in a robust inflammatory reaction. The role played by inflammation in the course of degeneration and regeneration is not completely elucidated. While, in peripheral nerves, the inflammatory response is assumed to be essential for normal progression of Wallerian degeneration and regeneration, CNS trauma inflammation is often associated with poor recovery. In this review, we discuss key mechanisms that trigger the inflammatory reaction after nervous system trauma, emphasizing how inflammations in both CNS and PNS differ from each other, in terms of magnitude, cell types involved, and effector molecules. Knowledge of the precise mechanisms that elicit and maintain inflammation after CNS and PNS tissue trauma and their effect on axon degeneration and regeneration is crucial for the identification of possible pharmacological drugs that can positively affect the tissue regenerative capacity.

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          Most cited references105

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          TLR signaling.

          The Toll-like receptor (TLR) family plays an instructive role in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, as well as the subsequent induction of adaptive immune responses. TLRs recognize specific molecular patterns found in a broad range of microbial pathogens such as bacteria and viruses, triggering inflammatory and antiviral responses and dendritic cell maturation, which result in the eradication of invading pathogens. Individual TLRs interact with different combinations of adapter proteins and activate various transcription factors such as nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB, activating protein-1 and interferon regulatory factors, driving a specific immune response. This review outlines the recent advances in our understanding of TLR-signaling pathways and their roles in immune responses. Further, we also discuss a new concept of TLR-independent mechanisms for recognition of microbial pathogens.
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            Control of microglial neurotoxicity by the fractalkine receptor.

            Microglia, the resident inflammatory cells of the CNS, are the only CNS cells that express the fractalkine receptor (CX3CR1). Using three different in vivo models, we show that CX3CR1 deficiency dysregulates microglial responses, resulting in neurotoxicity. Following peripheral lipopolysaccharide injections, Cx3cr1-/- mice showed cell-autonomous microglial neurotoxicity. In a toxic model of Parkinson disease and a transgenic model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Cx3cr1-/- mice showed more extensive neuronal cell loss than Cx3cr1+ littermate controls. Augmenting CX3CR1 signaling may protect against microglial neurotoxicity, whereas CNS penetration by pharmaceutical CX3CR1 antagonists could increase neuronal vulnerability.
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              Galectin-3: an open-ended story.

              Galectins, an ancient lectin family, are characterized by specific binding of beta-galactosides through evolutionary conserved sequence elements of carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). A structurally unique member of the family is galectin-3; in addition to the CRD it contains a proline- and glycine-rich N-terminal domain (ND) through which is able to form oligomers. Galectin-3 is widely spread among different types of cells and tissues, found intracellularly in nucleus and cytoplasm or secreted via non-classical pathway outside of cell, thus being found on the cell surface or in the extracellular space. Through specific interactions with a variety of intra- and extracellular proteins galectin-3 affects numerous biological processes and seems to be involved in different physiological and pathophysiological conditions, such as development, immune reactions, and neoplastic transformation and metastasis. The review attempts to summarize the existing information on structural, biochemical and intriguing functional properties of galectin-3.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mediators Inflamm
                Mediators Inflamm
                MI
                Mediators of Inflammation
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                0962-9351
                1466-1861
                2015
                31 March 2015
                : 2015
                : 251204
                Affiliations
                Laboratório de Neurodegeneração e Reparo, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 21941-550 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Ana Maria Blanco Martinez: martinez@ 123456histo.ufrj.br

                Academic Editor: Luc Vallières

                Article
                10.1155/2015/251204
                4397002
                25918475
                1d4cb15c-ba0a-4138-8a8c-398abc0822f3
                Copyright © 2015 Bruno Siqueira Mietto et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 23 December 2014
                : 24 February 2015
                : 9 March 2015
                Categories
                Research Article

                Immunology
                Immunology

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