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      Producción de conidios y clamidosporas de los hongos Duddingtonia flagrans y Monacrosporium thaumasium en diferentes medios sólidos Translated title: Produção de conídios e clamidósporos de Dunddingtonia flagrans e Monacrosporium thaumasium em diferentes meios sólidos

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          Abstract

          RESUMEN Las especies Duddingtonia flagrans y Monacrosporium thaumasium son micro-hongos considerados promisorios agentes del control biológico de parásitos. Bajo condiciones adversas como la falta de nutrientes, estos hongos producen esporas capaces de sobrevivieren después de pasar por el tracto gastrointestinal de los animales. La formación de estas estructuras es una característica deseable ya que promueve la sobrevivencia y la diseminación de los hongos para propósitos de biocontrol. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la producción de esporas de dos especies de hongos nematófagos D. flagrans (aislados AC001 y CG722) y M. thaumasium (NF34A). Estos fueron cultivados en los subproductos agroindustriales, que tenían el intento de identificar el mejor medio para uso en programas de biocontrol de nematodos. Diferentes volúmenes (10, 15 y 20 mL) de masa micelial fueron utilizados como inóculos iniciales y adicionados a 100 gramos de medios de crecimientos sólidos (sémola de arroz - QA; sémola de maíz - QM; bagazo de caña - BC; paja de arroz - PA y cascara de café - CC) y mantenidos a 25°C en la obscuridad para evaluar la producción de esporas. Los aislados AC001 y CG722 mostraron las mejores producciones en el medio de la QA (p<0,05). El volumen de 20 mL de masa micelial utilizado como inóculo inicial proporcionó una mayor recuperación de esporas. El aislado NF34A presentó una baja o nula producción de estructuras reproductivas en los diferentes volúmenes y medios de crecimientos utilizados. La mejor producción de esporas se obtuvo utilizando subproductos de la agroindustria con mayor densidad proteica y energética.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO As espécies Duddingtonia flagrans e Monacrosporium thaumasium são microfungos considerados promissores agentes de controle biológico de parasitos. Sob condições adversas, como a falta de nutrientes, estes fungos produzem esporos capazes de sobreviverem após a passagem pelo trato gastrintestinal dos animais. A formação destas estruturas é uma característica desejável, já que promove a sobrevivência fúngica e a sua disseminação para fins de biocontrole. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de esporos das espécies de fungos nematófagos D. flagrans (isolados AC001 e CG722) e M. thaumasium (NF34A). Estes foram cultivados em subprodutos agroindustriais, a fim de identificar o melhor meio para uso em programas de controle biológico de nematoides. Diferentes volumes de massa micelial (10, 15 e 20 mL) foram utilizados como inóculo inicial e adicionados sobre 100 gramas dos meios de crescimento sólidos (quirera de arroz - QA; quirera de milho - QM; bagaço de cana - BC; palha de arroz - PA e casca de café - CC) e mantidos a 25°C ao abrigo da luz para avaliar a produção de esporos. Os isolados AC001 e CG722 mostraram as melhores produções no meio QA (p<0,05). O volume de 20 mL de massa micelial usado como inóculo inicial permitiu maior recuperação de esporos. O isolado NF34A apresentou produção baixa ou nula de estruturas reprodutivas nos diferentes volumes e meios de crescimento utilizados. A melhor produção de esporos foi obtida nos subprodutos agroindustriais com maior densidade proteica/energética.

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          Basic Plant Pathology Methods

          The Second Edition of this bestseller brings together basic plant pathology methods published in diverse and often abstract publications. The Second Edition is updated and expanded with numerous new figures, new culture media, and additional methods for working with a greater number of organisms. Methods are easy to use and eliminate the need to seek out original articles. This reference allows for easy identification of methods appropriate for specific problems and facilities. Scientific names of pathogens and some of their hosts are updated in this edition. The book also acts as a research source providing more than 1,800 literature citations.<br>The Second Edition includes chapters on the following:<br><li>Sterilization of culture apparatus and culture media<br></li><li>Culture of pathogens with detailed techniques for 61 fungi and selected bacteria<br></li><li>Long-term storage of plant pathogens<br></li><li>Detection and estimation of inoculum for 28 soilborne fungal pathogens and 5 bacterial genera-15 methods for airborne inoculum and 13 methods for seedborne pathogens<br></li><li>Establishment of disease and testing for disease resistance<br></li><li>Work with soil microorganisms<br></li><li>Fungicide evaluation<br></li><li>Biological control<br></li><li>Bright-field microscopy</li>
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            Predacious activity of the nematode-destroying fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora in dependence of the medium composition.

            The nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora Fres. can live saprophytically as well as predatorily. As a predator it forms sticky reticulate traps in the presence of living nematodes which enable it to kill and consume the animals. In laboratory experiments the nutrient acquisition of the fungus was tested on agar media with various N- and C-sources in different concentrations. The intensity of predacious response was determined by counting the traps formed on the agar surface after induction by nematodes. Predacious activity (PA) served as a unit of the strength of nematophagous response. PA was defined as the number of traps/100 mm2. In contrast to carnivorous higher plants, which consume insects in order to compensate their N-deficit, the fungus seems to kill nematodes to get both, N as well as C. If the agar substrate contains a certain concentration of N and C, the fungus does not form traps and lives as a saprophyte. The level which determines the switch towards pure saprophytism under laboratory conditions ranges around 0.12 M C at a N-concentration of 0.05 M. If no nitrogen is added to the medium the fungus forms nematode-induced traps even in the most concentrated C-media. On N-media without any carbon source the fungus shows a much stronger PA compared with N-free media. Furthermore, more chlamydospores were formed on N-media.
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              The potential of nematophagous fungi to control the free-living stages of nematode parasites of sheep: towards the development of a fungal controlled release device.

              Studies showed that chlamydospores of the nematophagous fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans, are capable of surviving pressures of several tonnes when incorporated into matrices and pressed into tablets for the manufacture of prototype intraruminal controlled release devices (CRDs). They remain viable in this tabletted form for at least 9 months when stored at 4 degrees C. In vitro studies demonstrated that there was no effect on spore viability of prolonged exposure to either room or elevated temperature (40 degrees C) in air, or under an atmosphere of either of the major ruminal gases, carbon dioxide and methane. In vivo, studies showed that viable chlamydospores could be detected at the erosion surface of prototype CRDs recovered from the rumen and also in faeces of fistulated sheep, for up to 3 weeks after administration. Further studies have shown that chlamydospores released from such devices can substantially reduce the number of infective larvae that develop in cultures of faeces collected from sheep infected with the nematode parasite, Haemonchus contortus. This work demonstrates, in principle, that the deployment of chlamydospores of D. flagrans in intraruminal CRDs, is another possibility in the development of a range of methods for the biological control of parasites in livestock.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                aib
                Arquivos do Instituto Biológico
                Arq. Inst. Biol.
                Instituto Biológico (São Paulo )
                1808-1657
                2015
                : 82
                : 0
                : 1-5
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Viçosa Brazil
                [2 ] Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuária de Minas Gerais Brasil
                [3 ] Universidade de Vila Velha Brazil
                [4 ] EPAMIG Brasil
                [5 ] Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais Brazil
                Article
                S1808-16572015000100218
                10.1590/1808-1657000942013
                1d5ad8ea-1651-40f3-9c12-a3c2a737493b

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
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                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1808-1657&lng=en
                Categories
                AGRICULTURE, MULTIDISCIPLINARY

                General agriculture
                esporos,fungos nematófagos,controle biológico,subprodutos agroindustriais,esporas,hongos nematófagos,control biológico,subproductos agroindustriales

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