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      Risk factors for persistent and new chronic opioid use in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To determine chronic opioid use pre-THA (total hip arthroplasty) and post-THA, and risk factors for persistent or new chronic opioid use post-THA.

          Design

          Retrospective cohort study.

          Setting

          Australian Government Department of Veterans' Affairs health claims database.

          Participants

          9525 patients who had an elective unilateral THA between 1/01/2001 and 12/31/2012.

          Primary outcome measure

          Chronic opioid use. Defined as 90 days of continuous opioid use or 120 days of non-continuous use.

          Results

          Pre-THA, 6.2% (n=593) of patients were chronic users, while 5.2% (n=492) were post-THA. Among the 492 postoperative chronic users, 302 (61%) were chronic users pre-THA and post-THA and 190 (39%) became new chronic users after surgery. Risk factors for persistent chronic use were younger age (OR=0.96, 95% CI 0.93 to 0.99/1-year increment), back pain (OR=1.99, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.23), diabetes (OR=3.52, 95% CI 1.05 to 11.8), hypnotics use (OR=2.52, 95% CI 1.48 to 4.30) and higher pre-THA opioid exposure (compared with opioid use for 94–157 days, 157–224 days (OR=3.75, 95% CI 2.28 to 6.18), 225+ days (OR=5.18, 95% CI 2.92 to 9.19). Risk factors for new chronic opioid use post-THA were being a woman (OR=1.40, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.96), back pain (OR=3.90, 95% CI 2.85 to 5.33), depression (OR=1.70, 95% CI 1.20 to 2.41), gastric acid disease (OR=1.62, 95% CI 1.16 to 2.25), migraine (OR=5.11, 95% CI 1.08 to 24.18), liver disease (OR=4.33, 95% CI 1.08 to 17.35), weight loss (OR=2.60, 95% CI 1.06 to 6.39), dementia (OR=2.19, 95% CI 1.04 to 4.61), hyperlipidaemia (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.91), hypnotics (OR=1.56, 95% CI 1.13 to 2.16) and antineuropathic pain medication use (OR=3.11, 95% CI 2.05 to 4.72).

          Conclusions

          Patients undergoing THA are exposed to opioids for long periods of time, putting them at high risk of harm related to opioid use. We identified groups at risk of chronic opioid use, including younger patients and women, as well as modifiable risk factors of chronic opioid use, including level of opioid exposure presurgery and hypnotic use. These indicators of chronic opioid use can be used by clinicians to target patient groups for suitable pain management interventions.

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          Most cited references27

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          OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines.

          To develop concise, patient-focussed, up to date, evidence-based, expert consensus recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), which are adaptable and designed to assist physicians and allied health care professionals in general and specialist practise throughout the world. Sixteen experts from four medical disciplines (primary care, rheumatology, orthopaedics and evidence-based medicine), two continents and six countries (USA, UK, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Canada) formed the guidelines development team. A systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA published between 1945 and January 2006 was undertaken using the validated appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A core set of management modalities was generated based on the agreement between guidelines. Evidence before 2002 was based on a systematic review conducted by European League Against Rheumatism and evidence after 2002 was updated using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library and HTA reports. The quality of evidence was evaluated, and where possible, effect size (ES), number needed to treat, relative risk or odds ratio and cost per quality-adjusted life years gained were estimated. Consensus recommendations were produced following a Delphi exercise and the strength of recommendation (SOR) for propositions relating to each modality was determined using a visual analogue scale. Twenty-three treatment guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA were identified from the literature search, including six opinion-based, five evidence-based and 12 based on both expert opinion and research evidence. Twenty out of 51 treatment modalities addressed by these guidelines were universally recommended. ES for pain relief varied from treatment to treatment. Overall there was no statistically significant difference between non-pharmacological therapies [0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16, 0.34] and pharmacological therapies (ES=0.39, 95% CI 0.31, 0.47). Following feedback from Osteoarthritis Research International members on the draft guidelines and six Delphi rounds consensus was reached on 25 carefully worded recommendations. Optimal management of patients with OA hip or knee requires a combination of non-pharmacological and pharmacological modalities of therapy. Recommendations cover the use of 12 non-pharmacological modalities: education and self-management, regular telephone contact, referral to a physical therapist, aerobic, muscle strengthening and water-based exercises, weight reduction, walking aids, knee braces, footwear and insoles, thermal modalities, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and acupuncture. Eight recommendations cover pharmacological modalities of treatment including acetaminophen, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) non-selective and selective oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), topical NSAIDs and capsaicin, intra-articular injections of corticosteroids and hyaluronates, glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulphate for symptom relief; glucosamine sulphate, chondroitin sulphate and diacerein for possible structure-modifying effects and the use of opioid analgesics for the treatment of refractory pain. There are recommendations covering five surgical modalities: total joint replacements, unicompartmental knee replacement, osteotomy and joint preserving surgical procedures; joint lavage and arthroscopic debridement in knee OA, and joint fusion as a salvage procedure when joint replacement had failed. Strengths of recommendation and 95% CIs are provided. Twenty-five carefully worded recommendations have been generated based on a critical appraisal of existing guidelines, a systematic review of research evidence and the consensus opinions of an international, multidisciplinary group of experts. The recommendations may be adapted for use in different countries or regions according to the availability of treatment modalities and SOR for each modality of therapy. These recommendations will be revised regularly following systematic review of new research evidence as this becomes available.
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            Trends in Opioid Analgesic-Prescribing Rates by Specialty, U.S., 2007-2012.

            Opioid analgesic prescriptions are driving trends in drug overdoses, but little is known about prescribing patterns among medical specialties. We conducted this study to examine the opioid-prescribing patterns of the medical specialties over time.
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              Revision surgery after total joint arthroplasty: a complication-based analysis using worldwide arthroplasty registers.

              The authors performed a complication-based analysis of total knee (TKA), total hip (THA), and total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) using worldwide arthroplasty registers. We extracted data with respect to reason for revision surgery and pooled causes. The most common causes for revisions in THA were aseptic loosening (55.2%), dislocation (11.8 %), septic loosening (7.5%), periprosthetic fractures (6%), and others. The most common causes in TKA were aseptic loosening (29.8%), septic loosening (14.8%), pain (9.5%), wear (8.2%), and others. The most common causes in TAA were aseptic loosening (38%), technical errors (15%), pain (12%), septic loosening (9.8%), and others. Revisions in TKA and THA differ with respect to type of complication. However, in case of TAA, higher rates of technically related complications are reported. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Open
                bmjopen
                bmjopen
                BMJ Open
                BMJ Publishing Group (BMA House, Tavistock Square, London, WC1H 9JR )
                2044-6055
                2016
                29 April 2016
                : 6
                : 4
                : e010664
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Medicine and Device Surveillance Centre of Research Excellence, Sansom Institute, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia , Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                [2 ]Medicine and Devices Surveillance Centre of Research Excellence, School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute , Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                [3 ]Australian Orthopaedic Association National Total Joint Replacement Registry, University of Adelaide , Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                Author notes
                [Correspondence to ] Dr Maria CS Inacio; maria.inacio@ 123456unisa.edu.au
                Article
                bmjopen-2015-010664
                10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010664
                4853994
                27130165
                1d5bf3fb-05a1-45da-ac37-b064b5cf0d30
                Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

                This is an Open Access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

                History
                : 25 November 2015
                : 17 March 2016
                : 23 March 2016
                Funding
                Funded by: National Health and Medical Research Council, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000925;
                Award ID: GNT1035889
                Award ID: GNT1040938
                Categories
                Surgery
                Research
                1506
                1737
                1723
                1692

                Medicine
                opioids,total hip arthroplasty,chronic,risk factors
                Medicine
                opioids, total hip arthroplasty, chronic, risk factors

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