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      MicroRNA-148b is frequently down-regulated in gastric cancer and acts as a tumor suppressor by inhibiting cell proliferation

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          Abstract

          Background

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer development and progression, acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes. Our previous studies have revealed that miR-148a and miR-152 are significantly down-regulated in gastrointestinal cancers. Interestingly, miR-148b has the same "seed sequences" as miR-148a and miR-152. Although aberrant expression of miR-148b has been observed in several types of cancer, its pathophysiologic role and relevance to tumorigenesis are still largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which miR-148b acts as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer.

          Results

          We showed significant down-regulation of miR-148b in 106 gastric cancer tissues and four gastric cancer cell lines, compared with their non-tumor counterparts by real-time RT-PCR. In situ hybridization of ten cases confirmed an overt decrease in the level of miR-148b in gastric cancer tissues. Moreover, the expression of miR-148b was demonstrated to be associated with tumor size (P = 0.027) by a Mann-Whitney U test. We also found that miR-148b could inhibit cell proliferation in vitro by MTT assay, growth curves and an anchorage-independent growth assay in MGC-803, SGC-7901, BGC-823 and AGS cells. An experiment in nude mice revealed that miR-148b could suppress tumorigenicity in vivo. Using a luciferase activity assay and western blot, CCKBR was identified as a target of miR-148b in cells. Moreover, an obvious inverse correlation was observed between the expression of CCKBR protein and miR-148b in 49 pairs of tissues (P = 0.002, Spearman's correlation).

          Conclusions

          These findings provide important evidence that miR-148b targets CCKBR and is significant in suppressing gastric cancer cell growth. Maybe miR-148b would become a potential biomarker and therapeutic target against gastric cancer.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Prediction of mammalian microRNA targets.

          MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can play important gene regulatory roles in nematodes, insects, and plants by basepairing to mRNAs to specify posttranscriptional repression of these messages. However, the mRNAs regulated by vertebrate miRNAs are all unknown. Here we predict more than 400 regulatory target genes for the conserved vertebrate miRNAs by identifying mRNAs with conserved pairing to the 5' region of the miRNA and evaluating the number and quality of these complementary sites. Rigorous tests using shuffled miRNA controls supported a majority of these predictions, with the fraction of false positives estimated at 31% for targets identified in human, mouse, and rat and 22% for targets identified in pufferfish as well as mammals. Eleven predicted targets (out of 15 tested) were supported experimentally using a HeLa cell reporter system. The predicted regulatory targets of mammalian miRNAs were enriched for genes involved in transcriptional regulation but also encompassed an unexpectedly broad range of other functions.
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            Identifying biological themes within lists of genes with EASE.

            EASE is a customizable software application for rapid biological interpretation of gene lists that result from the analysis of microarray, proteomics, SAGE and other high-throughput genomic data. The biological themes returned by EASE recapitulate manually determined themes in previously published gene lists and are robust to varying methods of normalization, intensity calculation and statistical selection of genes. EASE is a powerful tool for rapidly converting the results of functional genomics studies from 'genes' to 'themes'.
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              MicroRNA expression patterns to differentiate pancreatic adenocarcinoma from normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis.

              While global microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns of many embryologic, physiologic, and oncogenic processes have been described, description of the role of miRNAs in ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is lacking. To define the expression pattern of miRNAs in pancreatic cancer and compare it with those of normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis. Specimens were obtained at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center from patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (n = 65) or chronic pancreatitis (n = 42) (January 2000-December 2005). All patients underwent curative pancreatectomy; those with pancreatic cancer were chemotherapy-naive. RNA harvested from resected pancreatic cancers and matched benign adjacent pancreatic tissue as well as from chronic pancreatitis specimens was hybridized to miRNA microarrays. Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs that could differentiate pancreatic cancer from normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, or both, as well as a pattern of miRNA expression predictive of long-term (>24 months) survival. Significance of Analysis of Microarrays and Prediction of Analysis of Microarrays were undertaken to identify miRNAs predictive of tissue type and prognosis. P values were calculated by t test, adjusted for multiple testing. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed using mean miRNA expression (high vs low) as threshold and compared by log-rank analysis. Twenty-one miRNAs with increased expression and 4 with decreased expression were identified that correctly differentiated pancreatic cancer from benign pancreatic tissue in 90% of samples by cross validation. Fifteen overexpressed and 8 underexpressed miRNAs differentiated pancreatic cancer from chronic pancreatitis with 93% accuracy. A subgroup of 6 miRNAs was able to distinguish long-term survivors with node-positive disease from those dying within 24 months. Finally, high expression of miR-196a-2 was found to predict poor survival (median, 14.3 months [95% confidence interval, 12.4-16.2] vs 26.5 months [95% confidence interval, 23.4-29.6]; P = .009). Pancreatic cancer may have a distinct miRNA expression pattern that may differentiate it from normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis. miRNA expression patterns may be able to distinguish between long- and short-term survivors, but these findings need to be validated in other study populations.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Mol Cancer
                Molecular Cancer
                BioMed Central
                1476-4598
                2011
                4 January 2011
                : 10
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgical Oncology and General Surgery, First Hospital of China Medical University, 155 North Nanjing Street, Heping District, Shenyang City 110001, China
                [2 ]The Research Center for Medical Genomics and MOH Key Laboratory of Cell Biology, China Medical University, 155 North Nanjing Street, Heping District, Shenyang City 110001, China
                Article
                1476-4598-10-1
                10.1186/1476-4598-10-1
                3024301
                21205300
                Copyright ©2011 Song et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (<url>http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0</url>), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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