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      Echinococcoses in Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan: Old Diseases in the New Millennium

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          Abstract

          Echinococcosis is considered a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by different species of small taeniid tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus and is regarded as a neglected zoonosis. Cystic and alveolar echinococcoses are endemic diseases of Tibetan, Pamir, and Iranian plateaus.

          SUMMARY

          Echinococcosis is considered a cosmopolitan zoonosis caused by different species of small taeniid tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus and is regarded as a neglected zoonosis. Cystic and alveolar echinococcoses are endemic diseases of Tibetan, Pamir, and Iranian plateaus. All of the countries within the Iranian plateau are affected by echinococcosis. Pakistan, Turkey, and Iran are the three most populous countries of the region, in which echinococcosis is highly endemic. The three neighboring countries share strong cultural and socioeconomic ties. The present study aimed to provide a broad review of the status of cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, summarizing the current knowledge about geographical distribution, molecular epidemiology, and transmission dynamics of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato and Echinococcus multilocularis in this region. Additionally, we aimed to understand disease burden and risk factors as basic requirements for establishing a surveillance system and planning prevention and control programs. A considerable body of information is available on different aspects of echinococcosis in this region; however, several information and research gaps need to be filled before planning control programs. None of the countries in the region have an elaborate echinococcosis control program. Effective control programs require multi/intersectoral coordination within a One Health approach with a long-term political and administrative commitment and enhanced international collaboration among the three countries.

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          Most cited references307

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          Recommendations for Conduct, Methodological Practices, and Reporting of Cost-effectiveness Analyses: Second Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine.

          Since publication of the report by the Panel on Cost-Effectiveness in Health and Medicine in 1996, researchers have advanced the methods of cost-effectiveness analysis, and policy makers have experimented with its application. The need to deliver health care efficiently and the importance of using analytic techniques to understand the clinical and economic consequences of strategies to improve health have increased in recent years.
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            Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour.

            Mass media campaigns are widely used to expose high proportions of large populations to messages through routine uses of existing media, such as television, radio, and newspapers. Exposure to such messages is, therefore, generally passive. Such campaigns are frequently competing with factors, such as pervasive product marketing, powerful social norms, and behaviours driven by addiction or habit. In this Review we discuss the outcomes of mass media campaigns in the context of various health-risk behaviours (eg, use of tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs, heart disease risk factors, sex-related behaviours, road safety, cancer screening and prevention, child survival, and organ or blood donation). We conclude that mass media campaigns can produce positive changes or prevent negative changes in health-related behaviours across large populations. We assess what contributes to these outcomes, such as concurrent availability of required services and products, availability of community-based programmes, and policies that support behaviour change. Finally, we propose areas for improvement, such as investment in longer better-funded campaigns to achieve adequate population exposure to media messages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Echinococcosis: Advances in the 21st Century

              SUMMARY Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by cestodes of the genus Echinococcus (family Taeniidae). This serious and near-cosmopolitan disease continues to be a significant public health issue, with western China being the area of highest endemicity for both the cystic (CE) and alveolar (AE) forms of echinococcosis. Considerable advances have been made in the 21st century on the genetics, genomics, and molecular epidemiology of the causative parasites, on diagnostic tools, and on treatment techniques and control strategies, including the development and deployment of vaccines. In terms of surgery, new procedures have superseded traditional techniques, and total cystectomy in CE, ex vivo resection with autotransplantation in AE, and percutaneous and perendoscopic procedures in both diseases have improved treatment efficacy and the quality of life of patients. In this review, we summarize recent progress on the biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, management, control, and prevention of CE and AE. Currently there is no alternative drug to albendazole to treat echinococcosis, and new compounds are required urgently. Recently acquired genomic and proteomic information can provide a platform for improving diagnosis and for finding new drug and vaccine targets, with direct impact in the future on the control of echinococcosis, which continues to be a global challenge.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                Clin Microbiol Rev
                American Society for Microbiology
                0893-8512
                1098-6618
                June 16 2021
                June 16 2021
                : 34
                : 3
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Research Center for Hydatid Disease in Iran, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
                [2 ]Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
                [3 ]Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
                [4 ]Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Firat, Elazig, Turkey
                [5 ]Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Islamabad, Pakistan
                [6 ]Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bingol, Bingol, Turkey
                [7 ]Parasitology Unit, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart, Germany
                Article
                10.1128/CMR.00290-20
                34076492
                1d608bea-6748-4818-a35d-8966c42cdfb3
                © 2021

                https://doi.org/10.1128/ASMCopyrightv2

                https://journals.asm.org/non-commercial-tdm-license

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