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      Copulatory mechanism in a sexually cannibalistic spider with genital mutilation (Araneae: Araneidae: Argiope bruennichi)

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      Zoology

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Genitalia are among the fastest evolving morphological traits as evidenced by their common function as diagnostic traits in species identification. Even though the main function of genitalia is the successful transfer of spermatozoa, the presence of diverse structures that are obviously not necessary for this suggests that genitalia are a target of sexual selection. The male genitalia of many spider species are extremely complex and equipped with numerous sclerites, plates and spines whose functions are largely unknown. Selection on male genitalia may be particularly strong in sexually cannibalistic spiders, where mating success of males is restricted to a single female. We investigated the copulatory mechanism of the sexually cannibalistic orb weaving spider Argiope bruennichi by shock freezing mating pairs and revealed a complicated interaction between the appendices and sclerites that make up the male gonopods (paired pedipalps). The plate that covers the female genital opening (scape) is secured between two appendices of the male genital bulb, while three sclerites that bear the sperm duct are unfolded and extended into the female copulatory opening. During copulation, females attack and cannibalise the male and males mutilate their genitalia in about 80% of cases. Our study demonstrates that (i) genital coupling is largely accomplished on the external part of the female genitalia, (ii) that the mechanism requires an interaction between several non-sperm-transferring structures and (iii) that there are two predetermined breaking points in the male genitalia. Further comparative work on the genus Argiope will test if the copulatory mechanism with genital mutilation indeed is an adaptation to sexual cannibalism or if cannibalism is a female counter adaptation to male monopolisation through genital plugging.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Zoology
          Zoology
          Elsevier BV
          09442006
          December 2007
          December 2007
          : 110
          : 5
          : 398-408
          Article
          10.1016/j.zool.2007.07.003
          17869076
          © 2007

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