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      Effect of the Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor Telotristat on Growth and Serotonin Secretion in 2D and 3D Cultured Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells

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          Abstract

          Serotonin, a biologically active amine, is related to carcinoid syndrome in functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Telotristat ethyl is a novel inhibitor of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), a key enzyme in the production of serotonin. While its use in patients with carcinoid syndrome and uncontrolled diarrhea under somatostatin analogs (SSAs) has been recently approved, in vitro data evaluating its effectiveness are lacking. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate the effect of telotristat as monotherapy, and in combination with SSAs, on proliferation and secretion in a NET cell line model. The human pancreatic NET cell lines BON-1/QGP-1 were used as 2D and 3D cultured models; somatostatin receptor and TPH mRNA expression, as well as the potential autocrine effect of serotonin on tumor cell proliferation using a 3D culture system were evaluated. Telotristat decreased serotonin production in a dose-dependent manner at a clinically feasible concentration, without affecting cell proliferation. Its combination with pasireotide, but not with octreotide, had an additive inhibitory effect on serotonin secretion. The effect of telotristat was slightly less potent, when BON-1 cells were co-treated with octreotide. Octreotide and pasireotide had no effect on the expression of TPH. Telotristat did not have an effect on mRNA expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes. Finally, we showed that serotonin did not have an autocrine effect on NET cell proliferation on the 3D cell model. These results suggest that telotristat is an effective drug for serotonin inhibition, but the effectiveness of its combination with SST<sub>2</sub> (somatostatin receptor subtype 2)-preferring SSA should be evaluated in more detail.

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          3D tumor spheroids: an overview on the tools and techniques used for their analysis.

          In comparison with 2D cell culture models, 3D spheroids are able to accurately mimic some features of solid tumors, such as their spatial architecture, physiological responses, secretion of soluble mediators, gene expression patterns and drug resistance mechanisms. These unique characteristics highlight the potential of 3D cellular aggregates to be used as in vitro models for screening new anticancer therapeutics, both at a small and large scale. Nevertheless, few reports have focused on describing the tools and techniques currently available to extract significant biological data from these models. Such information will be fundamental to drug and therapeutic discovery process using 3D cell culture models. The present review provides an overview of the techniques that can be employed to characterize and evaluate the efficacy of anticancer therapeutics in 3D tumor spheroids.
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            The Effects of Serotonin in Immune Cells

            Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] plays an important role in many organs as a peripheral hormone. Most of the body’s serotonin is circulating in the bloodstream, transported by blood platelets and is released upon activation. The functions of serotonin are mediated by members of the 7 known mammalian serotonin receptor subtype classes (15 known subtypes), the serotonin transporter (SERT), and by covalent binding of serotonin to different effector proteins. Almost all immune cells express at least one serotonin component. In recent years, a number of immunoregulatory functions have been ascribed to serotonin. In monocytes/macrophages, for example, serotonin modulates cytokine secretion. Serotonin can also suppress the release of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β by activating serotonin receptors. Furthermore, neutrophil recruitment and T-cell activation can both be mediated by serotonin. These are only a few of the known immunomodulatory roles of serotonin that we will review here.
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              Pasireotide (SOM230) shows efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors refractory or resistant to octreotide LAR: results from a phase II study.

              Pasireotide (SOM230) is a novel multireceptor-targeted somatostatin (sst) analog with high binding affinity for sst receptor subtype 1, 2, 3 (sst(1,2,3)) and sst(5). Because of this binding profile, pasireotide may offer symptom control in patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and carcinoid syndrome no longer responsive to octreotide LAR. This was a phase II, open-label, multicenter study of pasireotide in patients with advanced NET whose symptoms of carcinoid syndrome (diarrhea/flushing) were inadequately controlled by octreotide LAR. Patients received s.c. pasireotide 150 μg twice daily (bid), escalated to a maximum dose of 1200 μg bid until a clinical response was achieved. Forty-four patients were evaluated for efficacy and 45 for tolerability. Pasireotide 600-900 μg s.c. bid effectively controlled the symptoms of diarrhea and flushing in 27% of patients. Evaluation of tumor response in 23 patients showed 13 with stable disease and ten with progressive disease at study end. The most common drug-related adverse events were nausea (27%), abdominal pain (20%), weight loss (20%), and hyperglycemia (16%) and most were of mild or moderate severity. Pasireotide 600-900 μg s.c. bid was effective and generally well tolerated in controlling the symptoms of carcinoid syndrome in 27% of patients with advanced NET refractory or resistant to octreotide LAR therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                2020
                April 2020
                19 July 2019
                : 110
                : 5
                : 351-363
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                bMaimonides Institute for Biomedical Research of Cordoba (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain
                Author notes
                *Leo J. Hofland, Division of Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Wytemaweg 80, NL–3015 CN Rotterdam (The Netherlands), E-Mail l.hofland@erasmusmc.nl
                Article
                502200 Neuroendocrinology 2020;110:351–363
                10.1159/000502200
                31319410
                © 2019 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Research Article

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