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      Estimated prevalence of attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder symptoms among college freshmen: gender, race, and rater effects.

      Journal of learning disabilities

      Adult, Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, diagnosis, epidemiology, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Female, Humans, statistics & numerical data, Male, Prevalence, Questionnaires, Severity of Illness Index, Students, Adolescent

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          Abstract

          Group differences and prevalence rates for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a matched sample of college freshmen (n = 956) and their parents (n = 956) were investigated for gender and race (African American and Caucasian) effects using current self-report and retrospective parent-report ratings. On self-report, compared to female students, male students displayed higher mean scores on subscales and lower rates for reporting symptom totals beyond DSM-IV thresholds for the three subtypes of ADHD. Mean differences in ADHD symptoms were not apparent for race. However, African American students displayed higher rates for reporting symptom totals beyond DSM-IV thresholds for all subtypes. On retrospective parent report, male students and Caucasian students displayed higher mean scores on all scales and higher rates for reporting symptom totals beyond DSM-IV thresholds for all subtypes. Prevalence rates varied by gender and race on self-report and parent report. Prevalence was examined based on combined data of self-report and parent report and using age-adjusted cutoff criteria. Findings and implications are discussed.

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          Journal
          18560023
          10.1177/0022219407311748

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