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      Growth, yield and gas exchanges of ‘D’Angola’ plantain under different plant densities Translated title: Crescimento, produtividade e trocas gasosas de plátano ‘D’Angola’ sob diferentes densidades de plantio

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          Abstract

          ABSTRACT Information about production, crop systems and economic viability for technical grown of plantain are scarce in Brazil. Few technologies developed specifically for plantain are available; thus, there are many adaptations of information on banana crops extrapolated to plantain. The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth, nutritional status, gas exchanges, water use efficiency and yield of ‘D’Angola’ plantain under different plant densities, in the first production cycle. The treatments consisted of six plant densities (1,111; 2,500; 2,777; 3,125; 3,571; and 4,166 plants ha-1), which were evaluated in a randomized block design with four repetitions. Vegetative growth, leaf nutrient concentrations at the flowering stage, gas exchanges (monthly) at two reading times, fruit yield and water use efficiency at harvest were evaluated. The nutritional status is not dependent on plant density. The vegetative growth varied, regardless of the plant density, whereas the leaf area index increased as the plant density was increased. The leaf temperature increased as the plant density was increased. The water use efficiency for fruit yield, as a function of plant density, fitted to a quadratic model, with the maximum value at 3,301 plants ha-1. The use of 3,333 plants ha-1 is recommended for plantain.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO No Brasil, são escassas informações acerca dos dados de produção, sobre sistemas de cultivo e viabilidade econômica para exploração tecnificada de plátanos. Há pouca disponibilidade de tecnologias desenvolvidas especificamente para os plátanos, assim, há apenas adaptações de todo o conhecimento gerado para a cultura da bananeira extrapolada aos plátanos. Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o crescimento, o estado nutricional, as trocas gasosas, a eficiência de uso da água e a produtividade de Plátano ‘D’Angola’ submetido a diferentes densidades de plantio, no primeiro ciclo de produção. Os tratamentos, seis densidades de plantio: 1.111; 2.500; 2.777; 3.125; 3.571; 4.166 plantas ha-1, foram dispostos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Avaliaram-se: o crescimento vegetativo, os teores de nutrientes nas folhas no florescimento, as trocas gasosas (mensalmente) em dois horários de leitura, os caracteres de rendimento e a eficiência de uso da água na colheita. O estado nutricional independe da densidade de plantio. As características de crescimento vegetativo variaram independentemente das densidades de plantio, enquanto o índice de área foliar aumenta com a densidade de plantio. A temperatura foliar aumenta com o acréscimo da densidade de plantio. A eficiência de uso da água e a produtividade ajustam-se ao modelo quadrático em função da densidade de plantio, sendo o valor máximo com 3.301 plantas ha-1. Recomenda-se a utilização prática de 3.333 plantas ha-1.

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          Most cited references 16

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          Environmental physiology of the bananas (Musa spp.)

          The bananas are thought to be particularly sensitive to changes in the environment. This review considers some historical and recent investigations into the response of the leaf, root and reproductive system to the environment. Monteith's analysis of the response of plants to intercepted radiation is appropriate for analyzing the productivity of bananas and plantains. The banana is sensitive to soil water deficits, and expanding tissues such as emerging leaves and growing fruit are among the first to be affected. As soil begins to dry, stomata close and leaves remain highly hydrated, probably through root pressure. Productivity is affected because of the early closure of stomata. We find the common belief that bananas use large amounts of water does not have a strong physiological basis. Improvements in water-use efficiency in irrigated plantations could come from a closer match between plant water use and the amount of water applied. We examine recent data on water-use efficiency of different banana cultivars and propose that agronomists, physiologists and breeders could quantify the amount of water available in each rain-fed environment and work towards directing more of that water through the plant. The banana is day neutral for floral induction, but photoperiods of less than 12 h are associated with a slowing in the rate of bunch initiation that is independent of temperature expressed as growing degree days. This may contribute to seasonal variations in banana flowering, even in more tropical environments with moderate temperatures.
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            GAS EXCHANGE IN DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF BANANA PRATA IN SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT

            ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate gas exchange of banana Prata in two production cycles in semiarid environment. Six cultivars were used as treatments arranged into a completely randomized design with five replications and four plants per plot. For physiological characteristics, it was considered a factorial arrangement of 6x14x2, six cultivars, 14 periods (months), two readings, 8:00 and 14:00 in each period. The rates of gas exchange, the carboxylation efficiency and the instantaneous efficiency of water use were higher at 8:00 and lower at 14:00, with rare exceptions. The ‘BRS Platina’ had a higher leaf temperature, higher transpiration and lower water use efficiency. ‘Prata-Anã’, ‘FHIA-18’ and ‘Maravilha’ expressed lower leaf temperature and lower transpiration. The ‘Maravilha’ is the most efficient in water use. Transpiration increases linearly with the leaf temperature, while the instantaneous efficiency of water use decreases linearly.
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              Avaliação de clones de banana Cavendish

              Na bananeira ocorrem variações somaclonais em taxa muito superior ao que se observa na maioria das outras culturas, provavelmente em função da instabilidade mitótica. Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho avaliar clones de bananeira Cavendish coletados em diferentes locais. Os clones Grande Naine (G.N. Taperão, G.N. Rossete, G.N. Williams, G.N. Magário, G.N. SC-074) e Nanicão (N. IAC Abóbora Verde, N. Rossete, N. SC-0008 e N. SC-063) coletados em São Paulo, Santa Catarina e Bahia foram avaliados no Lote 54-P da Thelo Produção Agropecuária (Grupo Plena), no Projeto Jaíba, Etapa 1, no município de Matias Cardoso-MG. Avaliaram-se os caracteres altura da planta, circunferência do pseudocaule, número de folhas vivas no florescimento e na colheita, número de brotos, peso do cacho e das pencas, número de frutos e de pencas por cacho, comprimento e circunferência do fruto e número de dias do plantio ao florescimento e à colheita. Observou-se grande similaridade nas características dos clones. No entanto, os resultados obtidos permitem a recomendação dos clones N. IAC Abóbora Verde e G.N. Williams.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rbeaa
                Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agrícola e Ambiental
                Rev. bras. eng. agríc. ambient.
                Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola - UFCG (Campina Grande, PB, Brazil )
                1415-4366
                1807-1929
                July 2020
                : 24
                : 7
                : 490-496
                Affiliations
                Missão Velha CE orgnameSítio Barreiras Fruticultura Ltda. orgdiv1Setor Técnico Brasil vagner@ 123456sitiobarreiras.com.br
                Cruz das Almas Bahia orgnameEmbrapa Mandioca e Fruticultura Brazil mauricio-antonio.coelho@ 123456embrapa.br
                Guanambi Bahia orgnameInstituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Baiano orgdiv1Setor de Agricultura Brazil sergio.donato@ 123456ifbaiano.edu.br
                Article
                S1415-43662020000700490 S1415-4366(20)02400700490
                10.1590/1807-1929/agriambi.v24n7p490-496

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 22, Pages: 7
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