Background/Aims: To assess the relationship between bone and vascular disease and its changes over time after renal transplantation. Metabolic bone disease (MBD) is common in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease. Following transplantation (Tx), improvement in CV disease has been reported; however, data regarding changes in bone disease remain controversial. Methods: Bone turnover and arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity (PWV)) were assessed in 47 Tx patients (38 (3-191) months after Tx). Results: Bone alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC) and beta-crosslaps were significantly higher in Tx patients, and decreased significantly after one year. There was a negative correlation between BALP, OC and steroid administered (r=-0.35;r=-0.36 respectively). PWV increased in the Tx group (1.15 SD). In patients with a follow up of <24 months, PWV was correlated with BALP and beta-crosslaps (r=0.53; r=0.69 respectively) while in the ≥24 months group, PWV was correlated with cholesterol (r=0.38). Conclusions: Increased bone turnover and arterial stiffness are present following kidney transplantation. While bone turnover decreases with time, arterial stiffness correlates initially with bone turnover, after which the influence of cholesterol becomes significant. Non-invasive estimation of bone metabolism and arterial stiffness may help to assess CKD-MBD following renal transplantation.