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      Nanotechnology in cosmetics: Opportunities and challenges

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          Abstract

          Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.

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          Most cited references71

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          Ethosomes - novel vesicular carriers for enhanced delivery: characterization and skin penetration properties.

          This work describes a novel carrier for enhanced skin delivery, the ethosomal system, which is composed of phospholipid, ethanol and water. Ethosomal systems were much more efficient at delivering a fluorescent probe to the skin in terms of quantity and depth, than either liposomes or hydroalcoholic solution. The ethosomal system dramatically enhanced the skin permeation of minoxidil in vitro compared with either ethanolic or hydroethanolic solution or phospholipid ethanolic micellar solution of minoxidil. In addition, the transdermal delivery of testosterone from an ethosomal patch was greater both in vitro and in vivo than from commercially available patches. Skin permeation of ethosomal components, ethanol and phospholipid, was demonstrated in diffusion-cell experiments. Ethosomal systems composed of soy phosphatidylcholine 2%, ethanol 30% and water were shown by electron microscopy to contain multilamellar vesicles. 31P-NMR studies confirmed the bilayer configuration of the lipids. Calorimetry and fluorescence measurements suggested that the vesicular bilayers are flexible, having a relatively low T(m) and fluorescence anisotropy compared with liposomes obtained in the absence of ethanol. Dynamic light scattering measurements indicated that ethanol imparted a negative charge to the vesicles. The average vesicle size, as measured by dynamic light scattering, was modulated by altering the ethosome composition. Experiments using fluorescent probes and ultracentrifugation showed that the ethosomes had a high entrapment capacity for molecules of various lyophilicities.
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            Cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials.

            The cellular toxicity of carbon-based nanomaterials was studied as a function of their aspect ratio and surface chemistry. These structures were multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon nanoparticles. Their toxicity was tested in vitro on lung tumor cells. Our work clearly indicated that these materials are toxic while the hazardous effect is size-dependent. Moreover, cytotoxicity is enhanced when the surface of the particles is functionalized after an acid treatment.
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              Nanoparticles and microparticles for skin drug delivery.

              Skin is a widely used route of delivery for local and systemic drugs and is potentially a route for their delivery as nanoparticles. The skin provides a natural physical barrier against particle penetration, but there are opportunities to deliver therapeutic nanoparticles, especially in diseased skin and to the openings of hair follicles. Whilst nanoparticle drug delivery has been touted as an enabling technology, its potential in treating local skin and systemic diseases has yet to be realised. Most drug delivery particle technologies are based on lipid carriers, i.e. solid lipid nanoparticles and nanoemulsions of around 300 nm in diameter, which are now considered microparticles. Metal nanoparticles are now recognized for seemingly small drug-like characteristics, i.e. antimicrobial activity and skin cancer prevention. We present our unpublished clinical data on nanoparticle penetration and previously published reports that support the hypothesis that nanoparticles >10nm in diameter are unlikely to penetrate through the stratum corneum into viable human skin but will accumulate in the hair follicle openings, especially after massage. However, significant uptake does occur after damage and in certain diseased skin. Current chemistry limits both atom by atom construction of complex particulates and delineating their molecular interactions within biological systems. In this review we discuss the skin as a nanoparticle barrier, recent work in the field of nanoparticle drug delivery to the skin, and future directions currently being explored. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pharm Bioallied Sci
                J Pharm Bioallied Sci
                JPBS
                Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                0976-4879
                0975-7406
                Jul-Sep 2012
                : 4
                : 3
                : 186-193
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Pharmaceutics, Amrita School of Pharmacy, Amrita Viswa Vidyapeetham University, AIMS Health Care Campus, Ponekkara P.O., Kochi, India
                Author notes
                Address for correspondence: Miss. Silpa Raj, E-mail: silpa.raj87@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                JPBS-4-186
                10.4103/0975-7406.99016
                3425166
                22923959
                1d82ff8f-a398-4ab2-bc95-a0a09e473bc9
                Copyright: © Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 Unported, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 12 September 2011
                : 20 October 2011
                : 25 January 2012
                Categories
                Review Article

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine
                dendrimers,hydrogel,nanocosmeceuticals,safety controls,health risks

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