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      Is there a gender difference in associates of adolescents’ lifetime illicit drug use in Tehran, Iran?

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          Information regarding gender differences in drug use of adolescents is essential for designing gender-specific drug prevention policies. This study was conducted in high school students in Tehran, Iran, in 2007. Here, we report the gender differences in lifetime prevalence as well as psychosocial associates of drug use.

          Material and methods

          This was a gender analysis of the data collected in a drug use survey conducted in a random sample of high school adolescents (573 boys and 551 girls) in Tehran, Iran, 2007. Demographic characteristics, parental and peers’ substance use, school performance, religious beliefs, attachment, self-esteem and emotional intelligence (EI) were entered in logistic regression analyses to predict the lifetime illicit drug use in boy and girls, separately.


          Boys were more likely to report lifetime illicit drug use than girls (10.1% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.023). Differences in the risk profile associated with lifetime illicit drug use by gender included history of substance use in the family, higher score of attachment, and having an employed mother as predictors of substance use in boys, but not girls.


          Understanding this gender difference in predictors of lifetime use of illicit drugs in high school adolescents facilitates the design of gender-sensitive drug use preventive programmes. It seems that family variables may have more value in prevention of illicit drug use in male adolescents.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

          The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.
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            The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI).

             Peter Bär (2005)
            The present manuscript is an empirically based theoretical paper that presents, describes, and examines the Bar-On Model of Emotional-Social Intelligence (ESI) in deep. First, a description of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (the EQ-i), which has played an instrumental role in developing the model, is given. The EQ-i is a self-report measure of emotionally and socially intelligent behaviour. It has been translated into more than 30 languages, and data have been collected around the world. The impact of age, gender, and ethnicity on the Bar-On model is presented. A description of the model's construct and predictive validity is given. Finally, the author summarizes the key points, discusses the limitations of the model, and raises the ideas for developing a future model of ESI.
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              Association between mental health disorders, problem drug use, and regular prescription opioid use.

              Use of opioids for chronic noncancer pain is increasing, but standards of care for this practice are poorly defined. Psychiatric disorders are associated with increased physical symptoms such as pain and may be associated with opioid use, but no prospective population-based studies have addressed this issue. Analysis of longitudinal data from 6439 participants in the 1998 and 2001 waves of Healthcare for Communities, a nationally representative telephone community survey. Two hundred thirty-seven subjects (3.6%) reported regular prescription opioid use in 2001. In unadjusted logistic regression models, respondents with a common mental health disorder in 1998 (1165 [12.6%]; major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, or panic disorder) were more likely to report opioid use in 2001 than those without any of these disorders (odds ratio [OR], 4.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.64-5.38; P<.001). Risk was increased for initiation (OR, 3.26; 95% CI, 2.44-4.34; P<.001) and continuation (OR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.02-5.17; P = .04) of opioids. Respondents reporting problem drug use (136 [2.0%]; OR, 3.57; 95% CI, 2.32-5.50; P<.001) but not problem alcohol use (401 [6.5%]; OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.43-1.24; P = .25) reported higher rates of prescribed opioid use than those without problem use. In multivariate logistic regression models controlling for 1998 demographic and clinical variables, common mental health disorder (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.47-2.62; P<.001) and problem drug use (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.68-5.30; P<.001) remained significant predictors of opioid use in 2001. Common mental health disorders and problem drug use are associated with initiation and use of prescribed opioids in the general population. Attention to psychiatric disorders is important when considering opioid therapy.

                Author and article information

                Arch Med Sci
                Archives of Medical Science : AMS
                Termedia Publishing House
                30 June 2010
                30 June 2010
                : 6
                : 3
                : 399-406
                [1 ]Iranian Research Centre for Substance Abuse and Dependence (IRCSAD), University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Science, Tehran, Iran
                [2 ]Department for Drug Abuse Research, Medicine and Health Promotion Institute, Tehran, Iran
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Katayoon Khooshabi, Koodakyar Str., Daneshjoo Blvd. Evin, Tehran, Iran, Post code: 1985-713834, Phone: 0098-21-221 0043, Fax: 0098-21-221 80043. E-mail: cru_common@
                Copyright © 2010 Termedia & Banach

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License, permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Clinical Research


                substance use, gender, adolescents, predictors


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