Blog
About

3
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Hepatocellular carcinoma

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths globally and has an incidence of approximately 850,000 new cases per year. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents approximately 90% of all cases of primary liver cancer. The main risk factors for developing HCC are well known and include hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol intake and ingestion of the fungal metabolite aflatoxin B1. Additional risk factors such as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are also emerging. Advances in the understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of HCC have led to identification of critical driver mutations; however, the most prevalent of these are not yet druggable targets. The molecular classification of HCC is not established, and the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer staging classification is the main clinical algorithm for the stratification of patients according to prognosis and treatment allocation. Surveillance programmes enable the detection of early-stage tumours that are amenable to curative therapies - resection, liver transplantation or local ablation. At more developed stages, only chemoembolization (for intermediate HCC) and sorafenib (for advanced HCC) have shown survival benefits. There are major unmet needs in HCC management that might be addressed through the discovery of new therapies and their combinations for use in the adjuvant setting and for intermediate- and advanced-stage disease. Moreover, biomarkers for therapy stratification, patient-tailored strategies targeting driver mutations and/or activating signalling cascades, and validated measurements of quality of life are needed. Recent failures in the testing of systemic drugs for intermediate and advanced stages have indicated a need to refine trial designs and to define novel approaches.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 169

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found

          Hepatocellular carcinoma.

          Hepatocellular carcinoma is the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer-related death. Patients with cirrhosis are at highest risk of developing this malignant disease, and ultrasonography every 6 months is recommended. Surveillance with ultrasonography allows diagnosis at early stages when the tumour might be curable by resection, liver transplantation, or ablation, and 5-year survival higher than 50% can be achieved. Patients with small solitary tumours and very well preserved liver function are the best candidates for surgical resection. Liver transplantation is most beneficial for individuals who are not good candidates for resection, especially those within Milano criteria (solitary tumour ≤5 cm and up to three nodules ≤3 cm). Donor shortage greatly limits its applicability. Percutaneous ablation is the most frequently used treatment but its effectiveness is limited by tumour size and localisation. In asymptomatic patients with multifocal disease without vascular invasion or extrahepatic spread not amenable to curative treatments, chemoembolisation can provide survival benefit. Findings of randomised trials of sorafenib have shown survival benefits for individuals with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, suggesting that molecular-targeted therapies could be effective in this chemoresistant cancer. Research is active in the area of pathogenesis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Management of hepatocellular carcinoma.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Crizotinib versus chemotherapy in advanced ALK-positive lung cancer.

              In single-group studies, chromosomal rearrangements of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) have been associated with marked clinical responses to crizotinib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting ALK. Whether crizotinib is superior to standard chemotherapy with respect to efficacy is unknown. We conducted a phase 3, open-label trial comparing crizotinib with chemotherapy in 347 patients with locally advanced or metastatic ALK-positive lung cancer who had received one prior platinum-based regimen. Patients were randomly assigned to receive oral treatment with crizotinib (250 mg) twice daily or intravenous chemotherapy with either pemetrexed (500 mg per square meter of body-surface area) or docetaxel (75 mg per square meter) every 3 weeks. Patients in the chemotherapy group who had disease progression were permitted to cross over to crizotinib as part of a separate study. The primary end point was progression-free survival. The median progression-free survival was 7.7 months in the crizotinib group and 3.0 months in the chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for progression or death with crizotinib, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37 to 0.64; P<0.001). The response rates were 65% (95% CI, 58 to 72) with crizotinib, as compared with 20% (95% CI, 14 to 26) with chemotherapy (P<0.001). An interim analysis of overall survival showed no significant improvement with crizotinib as compared with chemotherapy (hazard ratio for death in the crizotinib group, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.54; P=0.54). Common adverse events associated with crizotinib were visual disorder, gastrointestinal side effects, and elevated liver aminotransferase levels, whereas common adverse events with chemotherapy were fatigue, alopecia, and dyspnea. Patients reported greater reductions in symptoms of lung cancer and greater improvement in global quality of life with crizotinib than with chemotherapy. Crizotinib is superior to standard chemotherapy in patients with previously treated, advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with ALK rearrangement. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00932893.).
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Disease Primers
                Nat Rev Dis Primers
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                2056-676X
                December 2016
                April 14 2016
                December 2016
                : 2
                : 1
                Article
                10.1038/nrdp.2016.18
                27158749
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

                Comments

                Comment on this article