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      Identification of Monoclonal Insulin Autoantibodies in Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome Associated with HLA-DRB1*0401

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          We have characterized HLA and insulin autoantibodies in a Japanese female patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome. Serological HLA typing demonstrated the patient had HLA-DR4, and DNA typing showed she had HLA-DRB1*0401 which has not been reported in patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome in Japan. A single binding affinity of insulin autoantibodies was demonstrated by Scatchard analysis and immunoglobulin class of insulin autoantibodies was exclusively IgG-ĸ. HLA-DRB1*0406 is strikingly associated with patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome who have polyclonal insulin autoantibodies. The present report demonstrated the first Japanese patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome carrying HLA-DRB1*0401 who was revealed to have monoclonal insulin autoantibodies. The present results indicate that HLA molecules are the major determinants of polyclonal insulin autoantibodies and monoclonal insulin autoantibodies in insulin autoimmune syndrome.

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          Worldwide differences in the incidence of insulin autoimmune syndrome (Hirata disease) with respect to the evolution of HLA-DR4 alleles.

          The relationship between the geographic distribution of susceptibility genes to insulin autoimmune syndrome (IAS) and the incidence of insulin autoimmune syndrome was investigated in order to examine the distribution of the genetic background to susceptibility to certain diseases. The HLA-DR4 allele, DRB1*0406, is associated with increased susceptibility to IAS among Japanese, while the DRB1*0403 and DRB1*0407 alleles are not (the odds ratio of which are 1.6 and 1.1, respectively). The worldwide geographic distribution of the three DR*04 alleles showed that the distribution of DRB1*0403 encompassed that of DRB1*0406 and DRB1*0407. Taken together with the findings that Glu at position 74 in the DRB1 molecule is shared by the three DRB1*04 alleles, there are only a few differences between the DRB1 molecule-nucleotide sequences of DRB1*0403, DRB1*0406 and DRB1*0407, and that all the three DRB1*04 alleles are carried by the same class II haplotype, DQA1*0301/DQB1*0302, it may be considered that DRB1*0403 is the ancestral allele of DRB1*0406 and DRB1*0407. Therefore, populations with a higher prevalence of DRB1*0406 have a higher risk of developing IAS. The extremely low prevalence of IAS among Caucasians can be explained by the low prevalence of DRB1*0406 in this population. This is a good example of the association between the predisposition to risk of development of certain diseases and the evolution of susceptibility genes.
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            Critical contribution of beta chain residue 57 in peptide binding ability of both HLA-DR and -DQ molecules.

            Position 57 in the beta chain of HLA class II molecules maintains an Asp/non-Asp dimorphism that has been conserved through evolution and is implicated in susceptibility to some autoimmune diseases. The latter effect may be due to the influence of this residue on the ability of class II alleles to bind specific pathogenic peptides. We utilized highly homologous pairs of both DR and DQ alleles that varied at residue 57 to investigate the impact of this dimorphism on binding of model peptides. Using a direct binding assay of biotinylated peptides on whole cells expressing the desired alleles, we report several peptides that bind differentially to the allele pairs depending on the presence or absence of Asp at position 57. Peptides with negatively charged residues at anchor position 9 bind well to alleles not containing Asp at position 57 in the beta chain but cannot bind well to homologous Asp-positive alleles. By changing the peptides at the single residue predicted to interact with this position 57, we demonstrate a drastically altered or reversed pattern of binding. Ala analog peptides confirm these interactions and identify a limited set of interaction sites between the bound peptides and the class II molecules. Clarification of the impact of specific class II polymorphisms on generating unique allele-specific peptide binding "repertoires" will aid in our understanding of the development of specific immune responses and HLA-associated diseases.

              Author and article information

              Horm Res Paediatr
              Hormone Research in Paediatrics
              S. Karger AG
              15 February 2001
              : 54
              : 1
              : 49-52
              aFirst Department of Internal Medicine and bDepartment of Laboratory Medicine, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi, and cTone-Chuo Hospital, Numata, Japan
              63437 Horm Res 2000;54:49–52
              © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 17, Pages: 4
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