We have characterized HLA and insulin autoantibodies in a Japanese female patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome. Serological HLA typing demonstrated the patient had HLA-DR4, and DNA typing showed she had HLA-DRB1*0401 which has not been reported in patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome in Japan. A single binding affinity of insulin autoantibodies was demonstrated by Scatchard analysis and immunoglobulin class of insulin autoantibodies was exclusively IgG-ĸ. HLA-DRB1*0406 is strikingly associated with patients with insulin autoimmune syndrome who have polyclonal insulin autoantibodies. The present report demonstrated the first Japanese patient with insulin autoimmune syndrome carrying HLA-DRB1*0401 who was revealed to have monoclonal insulin autoantibodies. The present results indicate that HLA molecules are the major determinants of polyclonal insulin autoantibodies and monoclonal insulin autoantibodies in insulin autoimmune syndrome.