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      Update on developments with SGLT2 inhibitors in the management of type 2 diabetes

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          Abstract

          The importance of the kidney’s role in glucose homeostasis has gained wider understanding in recent years. Consequently, the development of a new pharmacological class of anti-diabetes agents targeting the kidney has provided new treatment options for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Sodium glucose co-transporter type 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, such as dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and empagliflozin, decrease renal glucose reabsorption, which results in enhanced urinary glucose excretion and subsequent reductions in plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Modest reductions in body weight and blood pressure have also been observed following treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors. SGLT2 inhibitors appear to be generally well tolerated, and have been used safely when given as monotherapy or in combination with other oral anti-diabetes agents and insulin. The risk of hypoglycemia is low with SGLT2 inhibitors. Typical adverse events appear to be related to the presence of glucose in the urine, namely genital mycotic infection and lower urinary tract infection, and are more often observed in women than in men. Data from long-term safety studies with SGLT2 inhibitors and from head-to-head SGLT2 inhibitor comparator studies are needed to fully determine their benefit–risk profile, and to identify any differences between individual agents. However, given current safety and efficacy data, SGLT2 inhibitors may present an attractive option for T2DM patients who are failing with metformin monotherapy, especially if weight is part of the underlying treatment consideration.

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          Most cited references 91

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          Effects of dapagliflozin on body weight, total fat mass, and regional adipose tissue distribution in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on metformin.

          Dapagliflozin, a selective sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, reduces hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by increasing urinary glucose excretion, and weight loss is a consistent associated finding. Our objectives were to confirm weight loss with dapagliflozin and establish through body composition measurements whether weight loss is accounted for by changes in fat or fluid components. This was a 24-wk, international, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, placebo-controlled study with ongoing 78-wk site- and patient-blinded extension period at 40 sites in five countries. Included were 182 patients with T2DM (mean values: women 63.3 and men 58.6 yr of age; hemoglobin A1c 7.17%, body mass index 31.9 kg/m2, and body weight 91.5 kg) inadequately controlled on metformin. Dapagliflozin 10 mg/d or placebo was added to open-label metformin for 24 wk. Primary endpoint was total body weight (TBW) change from baseline at wk 24. Key secondary endpoints were waist circumference and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry total-body fat mass (FM) changes from baseline at wk 24, and patient proportion achieving body weight reduction of at least 5% at wk 24. In a subset of patients, magnetic resonance assessment of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and sc adipose tissue (SAT) volume and hepatic lipid content were also evaluated. At wk 24, placebo-corrected changes with dapagliflozin were as follows: TBW, -2.08 kg [95% confidence interval (CI)=-2.84 to -1.31; P<0.0001]; waist circumference, -1.52 cm (95% CI=-2.74 to -0.31; P=0.0143); FM, -1.48 kg (95% CI=-2.22 to -0.74; P=0.0001); proportion of patients achieving weight reduction of at least 5%, +26.2% (95% CI=15.5 to 36.7; P<0.0001); VAT, -258.4 cm3 (95% CI=-448.1 to -68.6; nominal P=0.0084); SAT, -184.9 cm3 (95% CI=-359.7 to -10.1; nominal P=0.0385). In the dapagliflozin vs. placebo groups, respectively, serious adverse events were reported in 6.6 vs. 1.1%; events suggestive of vulvovaginitis, balanitis, and related genital infection in 3.3 vs. 0%; and lower urinary tract infections in 6.6 vs. 2.2%. Dapagliflozin reduces TBW, predominantly by reducing FM, VAT and SAT in T2DM inadequately controlled with metformin.
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            Glucose transporters in the 21st Century.

            The ability to take up and metabolize glucose at the cellular level is a property shared by the vast majority of existing organisms. Most mammalian cells import glucose by a process of facilitative diffusion mediated by members of the Glut (SLC2A) family of membrane transport proteins. Fourteen Glut proteins are expressed in the human and they include transporters for substrates other than glucose, including fructose, myoinositol, and urate. The primary physiological substrates for at least half of the 14 Glut proteins are either uncertain or unknown. The well-established glucose transporter isoforms, Gluts 1-4, are known to have distinct regulatory and/or kinetic properties that reflect their specific roles in cellular and whole body glucose homeostasis. Separate review articles on many of the Glut proteins have recently appeared in this journal. Here, we provide a very brief summary of the known properties of the 14 Glut proteins and suggest some avenues of future investigation in this area.
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              Sodium-Glucose Cotransport Inhibition With Dapagliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes

              OBJECTIVE Dapagliflozin, a novel inhibitor of renal sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, allows an insulin-independent approach to improve type 2 diabetes hyperglycemia. In this multiple-dose study we evaluated the safety and efficacy of dapagliflozin in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Type 2 diabetic patients were randomly assigned to one of five dapagliflozin doses, metformin XR, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary objective was to compare mean change from baseline in A1C. Other objectives included comparison of changes in fasting plasma glucose (FPG), weight, adverse events, and laboratory measurements. RESULTS After 12 weeks, dapagliflozin induced moderate glucosuria (52–85 g urinary glucose/day) and demonstrated significant glycemic improvements versus placebo (ΔA1C −0.55 to −0.90% and ΔFPG −16 to −31 mg/dl). Weight loss change versus placebo was −1.3 to −2.0 kg. There was no change in renal function. Serum uric acid decreased, serum magnesium increased, serum phosphate increased at higher doses, and dose-related 24-h urine volume and hematocrit increased, all of small magnitude. Treatment-emergent adverse events were similar across all groups. CONCLUSIONS Dapagliflozin improved hyperglycemia and facilitates weight loss in type 2 diabetic patients by inducing controlled glucosuria with urinary loss of ∼200–300 kcal/day. Dapagliflozin treatment demonstrated no persistent, clinically significant osmolarity, volume, or renal status changes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2014
                11 September 2014
                : 8
                : 1335-1380
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg, Bad Lauterberg im Harz, Germany
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Michael A Nauck, Department of Internal Medicine, Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg Kirchberg 21, D-37431 Bad Lauterberg im Harz, Germany, Tel +49 5524 81218, Fax +49 5524 81398, Email m.nauck@ 123456diabeteszentrum.de
                Article
                dddt-8-1335
                10.2147/DDDT.S50773
                4166348
                © 2014 Nauck. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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