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      Genomic analyses identify molecular subtypes of pancreatic cancer

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          Abstract

          Integrated genomic analysis of 456 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas identified 32 recurrently mutated genes that aggregate into 10 pathways: KRAS, TGF-β, WNT, NOTCH, ROBO/SLIT signalling, G1/S transition, SWI-SNF, chromatin modification, DNA repair and RNA processing. Expression analysis defined 4 subtypes: (1) squamous; (2) pancreatic progenitor; (3) immunogenic; and (4) aberrantly differentiated endocrine exocrine (ADEX) that correlate with histopathological characteristics. Squamous tumours are enriched for TP53 and KDM6A mutations, upregulation of the TP63∆N transcriptional network, hypermethylation of pancreatic endodermal cell-fate determining genes and have a poor prognosis. Pancreatic progenitor tumours preferentially express genes involved in early pancreatic development (FOXA2/3, PDX1 and MNX1). ADEX tumours displayed upregulation of genes that regulate networks involved in KRAS activation, exocrine (NR5A2 and RBPJL), and endocrine differentiation (NEUROD1 and NKX2-2). Immunogenic tumours contained upregulated immune networks including pathways involved in acquired immune suppression. These data infer differences in the molecular evolution of pancreatic cancer subtypes and identify opportunities for therapeutic development.

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          Virtual microdissection identifies distinct tumor- and stroma-specific subtypes of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

          Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains a lethal disease with a 5-year survival of 4%. A key hallmark of PDAC is extensive stromal involvement, which makes capturing precise tumor-specific molecular information difficult. Here, we have overcome this problem by applying blind source separation to a diverse collection of PDAC gene expression microarray data, which includes primary, metastatic, and normal samples. By digitally separating tumor, stroma, and normal gene expression, we have identified and validated two tumor-specific subtypes including a “basal-like” subtype which has worse outcome, and is molecularly similar to basal tumors in bladder and breast cancer. Furthermore, we define “normal” and “activated” stromal subtypes which are independently prognostic. Our results provide new insight into the molecular composition of PDAC which may be used to tailor therapies or provide decision support in a clinical setting where the choice and timing of therapies is critical.
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            Multiplatform analysis of 12 cancer types reveals molecular classification within and across tissues of origin.

            Recent genomic analyses of pathologically defined tumor types identify "within-a-tissue" disease subtypes. However, the extent to which genomic signatures are shared across tissues is still unclear. We performed an integrative analysis using five genome-wide platforms and one proteomic platform on 3,527 specimens from 12 cancer types, revealing a unified classification into 11 major subtypes. Five subtypes were nearly identical to their tissue-of-origin counterparts, but several distinct cancer types were found to converge into common subtypes. Lung squamous, head and neck, and a subset of bladder cancers coalesced into one subtype typified by TP53 alterations, TP63 amplifications, and high expression of immune and proliferation pathway genes. Of note, bladder cancers split into three pan-cancer subtypes. The multiplatform classification, while correlated with tissue-of-origin, provides independent information for predicting clinical outcomes. All data sets are available for data-mining from a unified resource to support further biological discoveries and insights into novel therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Pan-Cancer Network Analysis Identifies Combinations of Rare Somatic Mutations across Pathways and Protein Complexes

              Cancers exhibit extensive mutational heterogeneity and the resulting long tail phenomenon complicates the discovery of the genes and pathways that are significantly mutated in cancer. We perform a Pan-Cancer analysis of mutated networks in 3281 samples from 12 cancer types from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) using HotNet2, a novel algorithm to find mutated subnetworks that overcomes limitations of existing single gene and pathway/network approaches.. We identify 14 significantly mutated subnetworks that include well-known cancer signaling pathways as well as subnetworks with less characterized roles in cancer including cohesin, condensin, and others. Many of these subnetworks exhibit co-occurring mutations across samples. These subnetworks contain dozens of genes with rare somatic mutations across multiple cancers; many of these genes have additional evidence supporting a role in cancer. By illuminating these rare combinations of mutations, Pan-Cancer network analyses provide a roadmap to investigate new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities across cancer types.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                March 2016
                February 24 2016
                March 2016
                : 531
                : 7592
                : 47-52
                Article
                10.1038/nature16965
                26909576
                1d9bbbf1-8a43-41e1-ad53-e8f40e2dd257
                © 2016

                http://www.springer.com/tdm


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