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      Impacts of CYP2C19 Polymorphism and Clopidogrel Dosing on in-Stent Restenosis: A Retrospective Cohort Study in Chinese Patients

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          Abstract

          Objective

          This retrospective cohort study is to analyze the impacts of CYP2C19 polymorphism and clopidogrel dosing on in-stent restenosis (ISR) after coronary stenting.

          Methods

          Totally, 111 patients were included, who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stent. Patients received clopidogrel treatment after the intervention on the background treatment with aspirin, based on the genotypes: 75 mg clopidogrel once each day for subjects without CYP2C19 loss-of-function (LOF) alleles (n=51; EM), 75 mg clopidogrel once each day (n=27; IM75) or twice each day (n=33; IM150) for subjects with one CYP2C19 LOF allele. ISR at 3–18 months after coronary stenting was assessed.

          Results

          ISR rate was significantly higher in the IM75 group (40.7%) than the EM group (11.8%). ISR rate in the IM150 group was lower than the IM75 group (6.1% vs 40.7%), and comparable to that in the EM group. Multivariate logistic regression showed that both CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel dosing were associated with the risk of ISR after adjusting the relevant confounding factors. ISR risk was higher in the IM patients than the EM patients. Patients with clopidogrel dose of 75 mg once each day had significantly higher risk of ISR than those with the dose of 75 mg twice each day.

          Conclusion

          Increased dose of clopidogrel may reduce the risk of ISR after PCI in CYP2C19 LOF allele(s) carriers. The presence of CYP2C19 LOF allele(s) increases the risk of ISR after stenting, which could be counteracted by the increased dose of clopidogrel.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Association of cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype with the antiplatelet effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel therapy.

          Clopidogrel therapy improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes and following percutaneous coronary intervention by inhibiting adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-dependent platelet activation. However, nonresponsiveness is widely recognized and is related to recurrent ischemic events. To identify gene variants that influence clopidogrel response. In the Pharmacogenomics of Antiplatelet Intervention (PAPI) Study (2006-2008), we administered clopidogrel for 7 days to 429 healthy Amish persons and measured response by ex vivo platelet aggregometry. A genome-wide association study was performed followed by genotyping the loss-of-function cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19*2 variant (rs4244285). Findings in the PAPI Study were extended by examining the relation of CYP2C19*2 genotype to platelet function and cardiovascular outcomes in an independent sample of 227 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. ADP-stimulated platelet aggregation in response to clopidogrel treatment and cardiovascular events. Platelet response to clopidogrel was highly heritable (h(2) = 0.73; P < .001). Thirteen single-nucleotide polymorphisms on chromosome 10q24 within the CYP2C18-CYP2C19-CYP2C9-CYP2C8 cluster were associated with diminished clopidogrel response, with a high degree of statistical significance (P = 1.5 x 10(-13) for rs12777823, additive model). The rs12777823 polymorphism was in strong linkage disequilibrium with the CYP2C19*2 variant, and was associated with diminished clopidogrel response, accounting for 12% of the variation in platelet aggregation to ADP (P = 4.3 x 10(-11)). The relation between CYP2C19*2 genotype and platelet aggregation was replicated in clopidogrel-treated patients undergoing coronary intervention (P = .02). Furthermore, patients with the CYP2C19*2 variant were more likely (20.9% vs 10.0%) to have a cardiovascular ischemic event or death during 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-4.99; P = .02). CYP2C19*2 genotype was associated with diminished platelet response to clopidogrel treatment and poorer cardiovascular outcomes.
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            Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events.

            Pharmacogenetic determinants of the response of patients to clopidogrel contribute to variability in the biologic antiplatelet activity of the drug. The effect of these determinants on clinical outcomes after an acute myocardial infarction is unknown. We consecutively enrolled 2208 patients presenting with an acute myocardial infarction in a nationwide French registry and receiving clopidogrel therapy. We then assessed the relation of allelic variants of genes modulating clopidogrel absorption (ABCB1), metabolic activation (CYP3A5 and CYP2C19), and biologic activity (P2RY12 and ITGB3) to the risk of death from any cause, nonfatal stroke, or myocardial infarction during 1 year of follow-up. Death occurred in 225 patients, and nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke in 94 patients, during the follow-up period. None of the selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CYP3A5, P2RY12, or ITGB3 were associated with a risk of an adverse outcome. Patients with two variant alleles of ABCB1 (TT at nucleotide 3435) had a higher rate of cardiovascular events at 1 year than those with the ABCB1 wild-type genotype (CC at nucleotide 3435) (15.5% vs. 10.7%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20 to 2.47). Patients carrying any two CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles (*2, *3, *4, or *5), had a higher event rate than patients with none (21.5% vs. 13.3%; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.10 to 3.58). Among the 1535 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention during hospitalization, the rate of cardiovascular events among patients with two CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles was 3.58 times the rate among those with none (95% CI, 1.71 to 7.51). Among patients with an acute myocardial infarction who were receiving clopidogrel, those carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles had a higher rate of subsequent cardiovascular events than those who were not. This effect was particularly marked among the patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00673036.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel therapy: 2013 update.

              Cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 catalyzes the bioactivation of the antiplatelet prodrug clopidogrel, and CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles impair formation of active metabolites, resulting in reduced platelet inhibition. In addition, CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles confer increased risks for serious adverse cardiovascular (CV) events among clopidogrel-treated patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Guideline updates include emphasis on appropriate indication for CYP2C19 genotype-directed antiplatelet therapy, refined recommendations for specific CYP2C19 alleles, and additional evidence from an expanded literature review (updates at http://www.pharmgkb.org).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                19 February 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 669-676
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University , Jinan 250014, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Cardiology, The Fifth People’s Hospital of Jinan , Jinan 250022, Shandong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mei Gao Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University , No. 16766, Jingshi Road, Jinan250014, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13791126569Fax +86-531 8296 3647 Email gaomei0217@163.com
                Yinglong Hou Department of Cardiology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University , No. 16766, Jingshi Road, Jinan250014, Shandong, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13791120810Fax +86-531 8296 3647 Email houyinglong2010@hotmail.com
                Article
                242167
                10.2147/DDDT.S242167
                7038774
                © 2020 Zhang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, References: 38, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

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