17
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Spotlight on romiplostim in the treatment of children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia: design, development, and potential place in therapy

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. In approximately one-third of cases, the duration of thrombocytopenia will extend beyond 12 months consistent with a diagnosis of chronic ITP. Minor bleeding manifestations are common in chronic ITP while severe or life-threatening bleeding complications are uncommon. Moreover, spontaneous resolution occurs in the majority of children with chronic ITP necessitating treatment in only those children with ongoing bleeding manifestations or impairment in health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The characterization of thrombopoietin (TPO) and remarkable advancements in our understanding of the pathophysiology of ITP has led to the development of a new class of agents, the TPO-receptor agonists that have documented efficacy in the amelioration of thrombocytopenia and bleeding manifestations in chronic ITP. Romiplostim is a second-generation TPO-receptor agonist that has undergone limited evaluation in the treatment of chronic ITP in children. Evolving data suggest that romiplostim may be a safe and effective agent in the treatment of chronic ITP in children. Additional data are needed to confirm its ability to increase platelet counts, decrease bleeding manifestation, and improve the HRQOL of children and caregivers impacted by chronic ITP.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 44

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Efficacy of romiplostim in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura: a double-blind randomised controlled trial.

          Chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterised by accelerated platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. Short-term administration of the thrombopoiesis-stimulating protein, romiplostim, has been shown to increase platelet counts in most patients with chronic ITP. We assessed the long-term administration of romiplostim in splenectomised and non-splenectomised patients with ITP. In two parallel trials, 63 splenectomised and 62 non-splenectomised patients with ITP and a mean of three platelet counts 30x10(9)/L or less were randomly assigned 2:1 to subcutaneous injections of romiplostim (n=42 in splenectomised study and n=41 in non-splenectomised study) or placebo (n=21 in both studies) every week for 24 weeks. Doses of study drug were adjusted to maintain platelet counts of 50x10(9)/L to 200x10(9)/L. The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy of romiplostim as measured by a durable platelet response (platelet count > or =50x10(9)/L during 6 or more of the last 8 weeks of treatment) and treatment safety. Analysis was per protocol. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00102323 and NCT00102336. A durable platelet response was achieved by 16 of 42 splenectomised patients given romplostim versus none of 21 given placebo (difference in proportion of patients responding 38% [95% CI 23.4-52.8], p=0.0013), and by 25 of 41 non-splenectomised patients given romplostim versus one of 21 given placebo (56% [38.7-73.7], p<0.0001). The overall platelet response rate (either durable or transient platelet response) was noted in 88% (36/41) of non-splenectomised and 79% (33/42) of splenectomised patients given romiplostim compared with 14% (three of 21) of non-splenectomised and no splenectomised patients given placebo (p<0.0001). Patients given romiplostim achieved platelet counts of 50x10(9)/L or more on a mean of 13.8 (SE 0.9) weeks (mean 12.3 [1.2] weeks in splenectomised group vs 15.2 [1.2] weeks in non-splenectomised group) compared with 0.8 (0.4) weeks for those given placebo (0.2 [0.1] weeks vs 1.3 [0.8] weeks). 87% (20/23) of patients given romiplostim (12/12 splenectomised and eight of 11 non-splenectomised patients) reduced or discontinued concurrent therapy compared with 38% (six of 16) of those given placebo (one of six splenectomised and five of ten non-splenectomised patients). Adverse events were much the same in patients given romiplostim and placebo. No antibodies against romiplostim or thrombopoietin were detected. Romiplostim was well tolerated, and increased and maintained platelet counts in splenectomised and non-splenectomised patients with ITP. Many patients were able to reduce or discontinue other ITP medications. Stimulation of platelet production by romiplostim may provide a new therapeutic option for patients with ITP.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            European consensus on grading bone marrow fibrosis and assessment of cellularity.

            Quantification of characteristic bone marrow biopsy features includes basic parameters such as cellularity and fiber content. These are important to assess the dynamics of disease processes with a significant impact on risk stratification, survival patterns and, especially, therapy-related changes. A panel of experienced European pathologists and a foreign expert evaluated, at a multi-headed microscope, a large number of representative slides of trephine biopsies from patients with myelofibrosis in an attempt to reach a consensus on how to grade cellularity and fibrosis. This included a critical evaluation of previously described scoring systems. During the microscopic analysis and subsequent discussion and voting, the importance of age-dependent decrease in cellularity was recognized. Grading of myelofibrosis was simplified by using four easily reproducible categories including differentiation between reticulin and collagen. A consensus was reached that the density of fibers must be assessed in relation to the hematopoietic tissue. This feature is especially important in order to avoid a false impression of a reduced fiber content in fatty and/or edematous bone marrow samples after treatment. The consensus for measuring myelofibrosis by clear and reproducible guidelines achieved by our group should allow for precise grading during the disease process and after therapy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Thrombocytopenia caused by the development of antibodies to thrombopoietin.

              Thrombocytopenia developed in some individuals treated with a recombinant thrombopoietin (TPO), pegylated recombinant human megakaryocyte growth and development factor (PEG-rHuMGDF). Three of the subjects who developed severe thrombocytopenia were analyzed in detail to determine the cause of their thrombocytopenia. Except for easy bruising and heavy menses, none of these subjects had major bleeding episodes; none responded to intravenous immunoglobulin or prednisone. Bone marrow examination revealed a marked reduction in megakaryocytes. All 3 thrombocytopenic subjects had antibody to PEG-rHuMGDF that cross-reacted with endogenous TPO and neutralized its biological activity. All anti-TPO antibodies were immunoglobulin G (IgG), with increased amounts of IgG4; no IgM antibodies to TPO were detected at any time. A quantitative assay for IgG antibody to TPO was developed and showed that the antibody concentration varied inversely with the platelet count. Anti-TPO antibody recognized epitopes located in the first 163 amino acids of TPO and prevented TPO from binding to its receptor. In 2 subjects, endogenous TPO levels were elevated, but the TPO circulated as a biologically inactive immune complex with anti-TPO IgG; the endogenous TPO in these complexes had an apparent molecular weight of 95 000, slightly larger than the full-length recombinant TPO. None of the subjects had atypical HLA or platelet antigens, and the TPO cDNA was normal in both that were sequenced. Treatment of one subject with cyclosporine eliminated the antibody and normalized the platelet count. These data demonstrate a new mechanism for thrombocytopenia in which antibody develops to TPO; because endogenous TPO is produced constitutively, thrombocytopenia ensues.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                30 March 2017
                : 11
                : 1055-1063
                Affiliations
                Division of Hematology, CHOC Children’s Hospital and UC Irvine Medical Center, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: David Buchbinder, Division of Hematology, CHOC Children’s Hospital and UC Irvine Medical Center, 1201 W. La Veta Avenue, Orange, CA 92868, USA, Tel +1 714 509 8459, Fax +1 714 509 8771, Email dbuchbinder@ 123456choc.org
                Article
                dddt-11-1055
                10.2147/DDDT.S113191
                5384698
                © 2017 Buchbinder et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Review

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                childhood, thrombopoietin, chronic, thrombocytopenia

                Comments

                Comment on this article