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      Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome Components on Lipodystrophy Different Subtypes Associated with HIV

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          Abstract

          HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) is characterized by body fat redistribution as a consequence of the antiretroviral therapy (ART) introduction, associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease development. Subjective diagnosis, classified between three subtypes according to the body region on which fat is lost and/or accumulated, named lipoatrophy, lipohypertrophy, and mixed lipodystrophy, is possibly accompanied with metabolic alterations. Forty people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA), with clinical diagnosis of HALS and from both genders, were assessed. They performed ambulatorial follow-up and used ART regularly. The main findings were greater lipid profile alterations among women, while no metabolic profile differences were found between the HALS subtypes. The lipohypertrophy group showed major alterations, with higher values for total body fat percent, visceral fat area (VFA), body mass index (BMI), and abdominal and neck circumferences when compared to the other groups. Lean body mass was superior only compared to the mixed lipodystrophy group, and fat mass only compared to the lipoatrophy group. BMI showed strong correlation with the VFA. In conclusion, despite anthropometric alterations related to HALS these individuals present, those are not accompanied with metabolic alterations. Strategies, as behavioral changes and disorders prevention, are important to decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease development.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

          A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
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            Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: an American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Scientific Statement.

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              A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

              Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α , interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Nutr Metab
                J Nutr Metab
                JNME
                Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
                Hindawi
                2090-0724
                2090-0732
                2017
                30 April 2017
                : 2017
                Affiliations
                1Botucatu Medical School, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil
                2Ribeirao Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP, Brazil
                Author notes
                *Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto: livia.bsacilotto@ 123456gmail.com

                Academic Editor: Phillip B. Hylemon

                Article
                10.1155/2017/8260867
                5429929
                Copyright © 2017 Livia Bertazzo Sacilotto et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

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