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      The adult head morphology of the hessian flyMayetiola destructor(diptera, cecidomyiidae) : Head Morphology OfMayetiola destructor

      1 , 2 , 3 ,   1

      Journal of Morphology

      Wiley

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          Abstract

          The adult head of the Hessian fly Mayetiola destructor was examined and described in detail. Morphological features are evaluated with respect to phylogenetic implications and possible effects of miniaturisation. Preserved groundplan features of Diptera are the orthognathous orientation of the head, the vestiture of small microtrichia (possible autapomorphy), filiform antennae inserted frontally between the compound eyes, the presence of a clypeolabral muscle (possible autapomorphy), the presence of labellae (autapomorphy), and the presence of only one premental retractor. Potential synapomorphies of the groups assigned to Bibionomorpha are the origin of M. tentorioscapalis medialis on the frons and the loss of M. craniolacinialis. Further apomorphies of Cecidomyiidae identified in Mayetiola are the unusually massive anterior tentorial arm, the absence of the labro-epipharyngeal food channel, the absence of the lacinia, and the presence of antennal sensilla connected by a seta, a feature not known from any other group of Diptera. The very large size of the compound eyes (in relation to the entire head surface) and the complete loss of ocelli are possible effects of miniaturization. The large size of the brain (in relation to the cephalic lumen), the unusual shape of the optic lobes, and the absence of the frontal ganglion as a separate structure are probably also linked with size reduction.

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          Single-copy nuclear genes resolve the phylogeny of the holometabolous insects

          Background Evolutionary relationships among the 11 extant orders of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, called Holometabola, remain either unresolved or contentious, but are extremely important as a context for accurate comparative biology of insect model organisms. The most phylogenetically enigmatic holometabolan insects are Strepsiptera or twisted wing parasites, whose evolutionary relationship to any other insect order is unconfirmed. They have been controversially proposed as the closest relatives of the flies, based on rDNA, and a possible homeotic transformation in the common ancestor of both groups that would make the reduced forewings of Strepsiptera homologous to the reduced hindwings of Diptera. Here we present evidence from nucleotide sequences of six single-copy nuclear protein coding genes used to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate evolutionary divergence times for all holometabolan orders. Results Our results strongly support Hymenoptera as the earliest branching holometabolan lineage, the monophyly of the extant orders, including the fleas, and traditionally recognized groupings of Neuropteroidea and Mecopterida. Most significantly, we find strong support for a close relationship between Coleoptera (beetles) and Strepsiptera, a previously proposed, but analytically controversial relationship. Exploratory analyses reveal that this relationship cannot be explained by long-branch attraction or other systematic biases. Bayesian divergence times analysis, with reference to specific fossil constraints, places the origin of Holometabola in the Carboniferous (355 Ma), a date significantly older than previous paleontological and morphological phylogenetic reconstructions. The origin and diversification of most extant insect orders began in the Triassic, but flourished in the Jurassic, with multiple adaptive radiations producing the astounding diversity of insect species for which these groups are so well known. Conclusion These findings provide the most complete evolutionary framework for future comparative studies on holometabolous model organisms and contribute strong evidence for the resolution of the 'Strepsiptera problem', a long-standing and hotly debated issue in insect phylogenetics.
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            Genomic and morphological evidence converge to resolve the enigma of Strepsiptera.

            The phylogeny of insects, one of the most spectacular radiations of life on earth, has received considerable attention. However, the evolutionary roots of one intriguing group of insects, the twisted-wing parasites (Strepsiptera), remain unclear despite centuries of study and debate. Strepsiptera exhibit exceptional larval developmental features, consistent with a predicted step from direct (hemimetabolous) larval development to complete metamorphosis that could have set the stage for the spectacular radiation of metamorphic (holometabolous) insects. Here we report the sequencing of a Strepsiptera genome and show that the analysis of sequence-based genomic data (comprising more than 18 million nucleotides from nearly 4,500 genes obtained from a total of 13 insect genomes), along with genomic metacharacters, clarifies the phylogenetic origin of Strepsiptera and sheds light on the evolution of holometabolous insect development. Our results provide overwhelming support for Strepsiptera as the closest living relatives of beetles (Coleoptera). They demonstrate that the larval developmental features of Strepsiptera, reminiscent of those of hemimetabolous insects, are the result of convergence. Our analyses solve the long-standing enigma of the evolutionary roots of Strepsiptera and reveal that the holometabolous mode of insect development is more malleable than previously thought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Phylogenetics and temporal diversification of the earliest true flies (Insecta: Diptera) based on multiple nuclear genes

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Morphology
                Journal of Morphology
                Wiley
                03622525
                November 2013
                November 2013
                September 11 2013
                : 274
                : 11
                : 1299-1311
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Institut für Spezielle Zoologie und Evolutionsbiologie; FSU Jena; Jena; 07743; Germany
                [2 ]Department of Entomology, Biological Faculty; Lomonosov Moscow State University; Leninskie gory 1-12; Moscow; Russia
                [3 ]Department of Entomology; North Dakota State University, NDSU Dept. 7650; Fargo; North Dakota; 58108-6050
                Article
                10.1002/jmor.20180
                24026972
                © 2013
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/jmor.20180

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