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      Differential Actions of a Mammalian Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Antagonist on Gonadotropin-ll and Growth Hormone Release in Goldfish, Carassius auratus

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          Abstract

          In goldifish the two native forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), salmon GnRH (sGnRH) and chicken GnRH-II (cGnRH-II), stimulate both gonadotropin-II (GTH-II) and growth hormone (GH) release. Modifications of GnRH structure at positions 1, 2, 3, and 6 often result in an antagonist in goldfish, an observation well documented in mammalian studies. In a preliminary study in goldfish, a mammalian GnRH antagonist, [Ac-D(2)Nal<sup>1</sup>, 4Cl-D-Phe<sup>2</sup>, D(3)-Pal<sup>3,6</sup>, Arg<sup>5</sup>, D-Ala<sup>10</sup>]-mGnRH (analog L) weakly stimulated GTH-II release, and strongly inhibited GH release. The objectives of the present study were to study the dose-related actions of analog L on GTH-II and GH release in the goldfish, the specificity of inhibition of native GnRH actions, and to test whether analog L can act directly on goldfish pituitary cells. In a goldfish pituitary fragments perifusion system, analog L at different concentrations, given as 2-min pulses or as 30-min prolonged treatments, stimulated GTH-II and inhibited GH release in a dose-dependent manner. Analog L at 2 µ M concentration (45 min) significantly suppressed sGnRH- and cGnRH-II-stimulated GTH-II as well as GH release. Analog L specifically inhibited GnRH-stimulated GH release, without having any significant effects on the GH release induced by either SKF38393, a dopamine Dl receptor agonist, or thyrotropin-releasing hormone. The GTH-II stimulatory and GH-inhibitory actions of analog L were significantly suppressed by a ‘true’ GnRH antagonist (Ac-Δ<sup>3</sup>-Pro<sup>1</sup>, 4FD-Phe<sup>2</sup>, D-Trp<sup>3,6</sup>)-mGnRH. Further, analog L stimulated GTH-II release and suppressed GH release from the enzymatically dispersed goldfish pituitary cells, indicating the direct actions of analog L at the pituitary cell level. Analog L also displaced <sup>125</sup>I-(D-Arg<sup>6</sup>, Pro<sup>9</sup> NHEt)-sGnRH bound to crude goldfish pituitary membrane preparations in a dose-related manner. In conclusion, contrary to its action as a potent GnRH antagonist in mammals, analog L has GTH-II stimulatory action in goldfish. Analog L by acting via GnRH receptors at the pituitary cell level differentially acts on GTH-II and GH release, suggesting functional differences in the properties of the GnRH receptors on GTH and GH cells. Analog L also specifically inhibits sGnRH and cGnRH-II actions on GTH-II and GH release.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEN
          Neuroendocrinology
          10.1159/issn.0028-3835
          Neuroendocrinology
          S. Karger AG
          0028-3835
          1423-0194
          1994
          1994
          08 April 2008
          : 59
          : 6
          : 561-571
          Affiliations
          aDepartment of Zoology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada; bThe Clayton Foundation Laboratories for Peptide Biology, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, Calif., USA
          Article
          126706 Neuroendocrinology 1994;59:561–571
          10.1159/000126706
          8084380
          © 1994 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 11
          Categories
          Sex Steroids and Regulation of Gonadotropin

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