7
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      A Comprehensive Review and Update on the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

      , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5

      Journal of Immunology Research

      Hindawi

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and life-threating inflammatory disease of gastroenteric tissue characterized by episodes of intestinal inflammation. The pathogenesis of IBD is complex. Recent studies have greatly improved our knowledge of the pathophysiology of IBD, leading to great advances in the treatment as well as diagnosis of IBD. In this review, we have systemically reviewed the pathogenesis of IBD and highlighted recent advances in host genetic factors, gut microbiota, and environmental factors and, especially, in abnormal innate and adaptive immune responses and their interactions, which may hold the keys to identify novel predictive or prognostic biomarkers and develop new therapies.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 156

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Recognition of commensal microflora by toll-like receptors is required for intestinal homeostasis.

          Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in host defense against microbial infection. The microbial ligands recognized by TLRs are not unique to pathogens, however, and are produced by both pathogenic and commensal microorganisms. It is thought that an inflammatory response to commensal bacteria is avoided due to sequestration of microflora by surface epithelia. Here, we show that commensal bacteria are recognized by TLRs under normal steady-state conditions, and this interaction plays a crucial role in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Furthermore, we find that activation of TLRs by commensal microflora is critical for the protection against gut injury and associated mortality. These findings reveal a novel function of TLRs-control of intestinal epithelial homeostasis and protection from injury-and provide a new perspective on the evolution of host-microbial interactions.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: not found
            • Article: not found

            Inflammatory bowel disease.

              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The inhibitory cytokine IL-35 contributes to regulatory T-cell function.

              Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are a critical sub-population of CD4+ T cells that are essential for maintaining self tolerance and preventing autoimmunity, for limiting chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma and inflammatory bowel disease, and for regulating homeostatic lymphocyte expansion. However, they also suppress natural immune responses to parasites and viruses as well as anti-tumour immunity induced by therapeutic vaccines. Although the manipulation of T(reg) function is an important goal of immunotherapy, the molecules that mediate their suppressive activity remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that Epstein-Barr-virus-induced gene 3 (Ebi3, which encodes IL-27beta) and interleukin-12 alpha (Il12a, which encodes IL-12alpha/p35) are highly expressed by mouse Foxp3+ (forkhead box P3) T(reg) cells but not by resting or activated effector CD4+ T (T(eff)) cells, and that an Ebi3-IL-12alpha heterodimer is constitutively secreted by T(reg) but not T(eff) cells. Both Ebi3 and Il12a messenger RNA are markedly upregulated in T(reg) cells co-cultured with T(eff) cells, thereby boosting Ebi3 and IL-12alpha production in trans. T(reg)-cell restriction of this cytokine occurs because Ebi3 is a downstream target of Foxp3, a transcription factor that is required for T(reg)-cell development and function. Ebi3-/- and Il12a-/- T(reg) cells have significantly reduced regulatory activity in vitro and fail to control homeostatic proliferation and to cure inflammatory bowel disease in vivo. Because these phenotypic characteristics are distinct from those of other IL-12 family members, this novel Ebi3-IL-12alpha heterodimeric cytokine has been designated interleukin-35 (IL-35). Ectopic expression of IL-35 confers regulatory activity on naive T cells, whereas recombinant IL-35 suppresses T-cell proliferation. Taken together, these data identify IL-35 as a novel inhibitory cytokine that may be specifically produced by T(reg) cells and is required for maximal suppressive activity.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                JIR
                Journal of Immunology Research
                Hindawi
                2314-8861
                2314-7156
                2019
                1 December 2019
                : 2019
                Affiliations
                1Department of Immunology, University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
                2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
                3Cellular Therapy Laboratory, Cancer Care Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
                4Research Institute in Oncology and Hematology, Cancer Care Manitoba, Manitoba, Canada
                5Manitoba Centre for Advanced Cell and Tissue Therapy, Manitoba, Canada
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Cinzia Ciccacci

                Article
                10.1155/2019/7247238
                6914932
                Copyright © 2019 Qingdong Guan.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review Article

                Comments

                Comment on this article