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      Prevalence, characteristics, and burden of failed back surgery syndrome: the influence of various residual symptoms on patient satisfaction and quality of life as assessed by a nationwide Internet survey in Japan

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          Abstract

          We conducted a cross-sectional, Internet-based survey with a nationally representative sample of Japanese adults to assess the prevalence and characteristics of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Data regarding the residual symptoms and patient satisfaction from an online survey of 1842 lumbar surgery patients revealed the prevalence of FBSS to be 20.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.8–22.6). The prevalence of low back pain, dull ache, numbness, cold sensations, and paresthesia after surgery was 94.0%, 71.1%, 69.8%, 43.3%, and 35.3%, respectively. With a logistic regression model, severe residual low back pain (numerical rating scale 8–10), higher pain intensity, and multiple low back surgeries were strongly associated with FBSS, with odds ratios of 15.21 (95% CI, 7.79–29.7), 1.40 (95% CI, 1.32–1.49), and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25–2.81), respectively. Respondents with FBSS had significantly lower EuroQol-5D ( P<0.001) values and significantly higher scores on the Kessler six-item psychological distress scale ( P<0.001), compared with the non-FBSS group. Our findings indicate that residual sensations have a significant effect on patient quality of life, similar to that of chronic low back pain. Precise presurgical provision of prognoses based on comprehensive epidemiologic data, as well as scrupulous attention to patient satisfaction and clinical progress may help reduce the incidence of FBSS.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Failed back surgery syndrome.

          Failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) is a chronic pain condition that has considerable impact on the patient and health care system. Despite advances in surgical technology, the rates of failed back surgery have not declined. The factors contributing to the development of this entity may occur in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative periods. Due to the severe pain and disability this syndrome may cause, more radical treatments have been utilized. Recent trials have been published that evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of therapeutic modalities such as spinal cord stimulation for the management of patients with failed back surgery. This article will describe the epidemiology and etiology of FBSS. The importance of prevention will be emphasized. In those patients with established FBSS, a guide to interdisciplinary evaluation and management will be outlined. Special attention will focus on recent trials that have studied the efficacy of more invasive procedures such as spinal cord stimulation. Finally, a suggested management pathway is presented. FBSS is a challenging clinical entity with significant impact on the individual and society. To better prevent and manage this condition, knowledge of the factors contributing to its development is necessary. While research on FBSS has increased in recent years, perhaps the best strategy to reduce incidence and morbidity is to focus on prevention. Patients diagnosed with FBSS should be managed in an interdisciplinary environment. More radical treatments for FBSS have now been extensively studied providing clinicians with much needed evidence on their efficacy. Incorporating these results into our current knowledge provides a basis on which to construct an evidence-based guide on how best to manage patients who suffer from FBSS. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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            Long-term outcomes of standard discectomy for lumbar disc herniation: a follow-up study of more than 10 years.

            A retrospective analysis of the long-term outcomes of standard discectomy for lumbar disc herniation. To investigate the long-term outcomes of standard discectomy to address postoperative problems, including residual low back pain and recurrent herniation. Most previous investigators found that favorable outcomes of standard discectomy were maintained for the long-term postoperative period. Although they observed postoperative complications such as residual low back pain and recurrent herniation, detailed analyses of these results have not been conducted. The long-term follow-up results in patients who were observed for a minimum of 10 years after standard discectomy were evaluated by using the Japanese Orthopedic Association scoring system through direct examinations and questionnaires. Radiography also was used in patients who agreed to visit the hospital, and findings were compared with those on preoperative radiographs. The average recovery rate calculated by using Japanese Orthopedic Association scores was 73.5 +/- 21.7%. Even though residual low back pain was found in 74.6% of the patients, only 12.7% had severe low back pain. The majority of the patients with severe low back pain were under 35 years of age at the time of operation, with preoperative advanced disc degeneration. The final Japanese Orthopedic Association scores in the patients with decreased disc height were significantly lower than those in patients with no decrease. However, the disc height of patients with a recurrent herniation was preserved. The long-term outcome of standard discectomy in this series was favorable. Although patients with preserved disc height generally had favorable results, the risk of recurrent disc herniation was high in this population.
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              Surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Attempted meta-analysis of the literature.

              A meta-analysis was undertaken to determine the effects of surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis on pain and disability. Seventy-four journal articles met inclusion criteria and were independently reviewed by two readers. On average, 64% of patients treated surgically for lumbar spinal stenosis were reported to have good-to-excellent outcomes. However, there was wide variation across studies in the percentage with good outcomes. Few patient characteristics were found to predict outcome. Major deficits in study design, analysis, and reporting were common, and these precluded firm conclusions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2017
                06 April 2017
                : 10
                : 811-823
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Multidisciplinary Pain Center
                [2 ]Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
                [3 ]Institute of Physical Fitness, Sports Medicine and Rehabilitation, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Shinsuke Inoue, Multidisciplinary Pain Center, Aichi Medical University, 1-1 Yazako Karimata, Nagakute, Aichi 480-1195, Japan, Tel +81 561 62 5004, Fax +81 561 62 5004, Email misty-ssk@ 123456umin.net
                Article
                jpr-10-811
                10.2147/JPR.S129295
                5388346
                © 2017 Inoue et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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