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      Effectiveness of Aldosterone Blockade in Patients With Diabetic Nephropathy

      1 , 1 , 1 , 1

      Hypertension

      Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)

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          Most cited references 24

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          Use of single voided urine samples to estimate quantitative proteinuria.

          Quantitation of urinary protein excretion is used extensively for diagnostic and prognostic purposes and to assess the effects of therapy. The method most commonly used to measure urinary protein relies on 24-hour urine collections, which are time consuming, cumbersome, and often inaccurate. We reasoned that the urinary protein/creatinine ratio in a single voided urine sample should correlate well with the quantity of protein in timed urine collections. In a study of 46 specimens we found an excellent correlation between the protein content of a 24-hour urine collection and the protein/creatinine ratio in a single urine sample. The best correlation was found when samples were collected after the first voided morning specimen and before bedtime. We conclude that the determination of the protein/creatinine ratio in single urine samples obtained during normal daylight activity, when properly interpreted by taking into consideration the effect of different rates of creatinine excretion, can replace the 24-hour urine collection in the clinical quantitation of proteinuria. In the presence of stable renal function, a protein/creatinine ratio of more than 3.5 (mg/mg) can be taken to represent "nephrotic-range" proteinuria, and a ratio of less than 0.2 is within normal limits.
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            Aldosterone: a mediator of myocardial necrosis and renal arteriopathy.

            To determine the role of aldosterone in mediating cardiovascular damage, we performed ablation/replacement experiments with aldosterone in a rat model of cardiac injury. Administration of angiotensin II and Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; nitric oxide synthesis inhibitor) to male rats drinking 1% saline caused hypertension, severe biventricular myocardial necrosis, proteinuria, and fibrinoid necrosis of renal and cardiac vessels. Removal of aldosterone by adrenalectomy or through administration of the selective aldosterone antagonist eplerenone markedly reduced the cardiac and renal damage without significantly altering blood pressure. Aldosterone infusion in adrenalectomized, glucocorticoid-replaced L-NAME/angiotensin II-treated animals restored damage. Thus, we identified aldosterone as a critical mediator of L-NAME/angiotensin II induced vascular damage through mechanisms apparently independent of its effects on systolic blood pressure.
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              Spironolactone in addition to ACE inhibition to reduce proteinuria in patients with chronic renal disease.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Hypertension
                Hypertension
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0194-911X
                1524-4563
                January 2003
                January 2003
                : 41
                : 1
                : 64-68
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Internal Medicine, Mito Red Cross Hospital (A.S.), Ibaraki; the Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University (K.H., T.S.), Tokyo; and the Department of Medicine, Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Tokyo Women’s Medical University (M.N.), Tokyo, Japan.
                Article
                10.1161/01.HYP.0000044937.95080.E9
                © 2003

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