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      Indoor-Breeding of Aedes albopictus in Northern Peninsular Malaysia and Its Potential Epidemiological Implications

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          Abstract

          Background

          The mosquito Ae. albopictus is usually adapted to the peri-domestic environment and typically breeds outdoors. However, we observed its larvae in most containers within homes in northern peninsular Malaysia. To anticipate the epidemiological implications of this indoor-breeding, we assessed some fitness traits affecting vectorial capacity during colonization process. Specifically, we examined whether Ae. albopictus exhibits increased survival, gonotrophic activity and fecundity due to the potential increase in blood feeding opportunities.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          In a series of experiments involving outdoors and indoors breeding populations, we found that Ae. albopictus lives longer in the indoor environment. We also observed increased nighttime biting activity and lifetime fecundity in indoor/domestic adapted females, although they were similar to recently colonized females in body size.

          Conclusion/Significance

          Taken together these data suggest that accommodation of Ae. albopictus to indoor/domestic environment may increase its lifespan, blood feeding success, nuisance and thus vectorial capacity (both in terms of increased vector-host contacts and vector population density). These changes in the breeding behavior of Ae. albopictus, a potential vector of several human pathogens including dengue viruses, require special attention.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Mosquito sugar feeding and reproductive energetics.

          Sugar feeding is a fundamental characteristic of mosquito life. Most evidence indicates frequent ingestion by both sexes and all ages of mosquitoes of plant sugar, usually as floral and extrafloral nectar and honeydew. Energetically, sugar and blood are interchangeable; females of some species have evolved independence from one or the other, but most need blood to develop eggs and sugar to survive, to fly, and to enhance reproduction. Mosquitoes' commitment to sugar is further illustrated by a wealth of behavioral, structural, and physiological specializations for finding, feeding on, and processing it. Blood and sugar feeding activities are antagonistic and mutually exclusive, owing to conflicting demands, yet they support the same goals and often share the same activity period. The rules by which females make food-choice decisions have been inadequately explored, and we still lack convincing evidence that sugar availability in nature varies sufficiently to affect mosquito populations.
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            The biology of Aedes albopictus.

             W Hawley (1988)
            The biology of Aedes albopictus is reviewed, with emphasis on studies of ecology and behavior. The following topics are discussed: distribution and taxonomy, genetics, medical importance, habitat, egg biology, larval biology, adult biology, competitive interactions, comparative studies with Aedes aegypti, population dynamics, photoperiodism, and surveillance and control.
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              Dengue: an update.

              This review is an update of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) based on international and Cuban experience. We describe the virus characteristics and risk factors for dengue and DHF, and compare incidence and the case fatality rates in endemic regions (southeast Asia, western Pacific, and the Americas). The clinical picture and the pathogenesis of the severe disease are explained. We also discuss the viral, individual, and environmental factors that determine severe disease. Much more research is necessary to clarify these mechanisms. Also reviewed are methods for viral isolation and the serological, immunohistochemical, and molecular methods applied in the diagnosis of the disease. We describe the status of vaccine development and emphasise that the only alternative that we have today to control the disease is through control of its vector Aedes aegypti.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                1932-6203
                2010
                27 July 2010
                : 5
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia
                [2 ]Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, United Kingdom
                [3 ]Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan
                [4 ]Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
                State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: HD RGMS. Performed the experiments: HD RGMS. Analyzed the data: HD RGMS AAH MCS TS MB ZJ SA. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: HD. Wrote the paper: HD RGMS AAH MCS TS MB ZJ SA.

                Article
                10-PONE-RA-15380R2
                10.1371/journal.pone.0011790
                2910701
                20668543
                Dieng et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 9
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ecology/Behavioral Ecology
                Ecology/Evolutionary Ecology
                Ecology/Population Ecology
                Evolutionary Biology/Sexual Behavior
                Infectious Diseases/Epidemiology and Control of Infectious Diseases

                Uncategorized

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