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      Effect of liraglutide on atrial natriuretic peptide, adrenomedullin, and copeptin in PCOS


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          Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and biomarkers can be used to detect early subclinical CVD. Midregional-pro-adrenomedullin (MR-proADM), midregional-pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and copeptin are all associated with CVD and part of the delicate system controlling fluid and hemodynamic homeostasis through vascular tonus and diuresis. The GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, developed for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D), improves cardiovascular outcomes in patients with T2D including a decrease in particular MR-proANP.


          To investigate if treatment with liraglutide in women with PCOS reduces levels of the cardiovascular biomarkers MR-proADM, MR-proANP and copeptin.


          Seventy-two overweight women with PCOS were treated with 1.8 mg/day liraglutide or placebo for 26 weeks in a placebo-controlled RCT. Biomarkers, anthropometrics, insulin resistance, body composition (DXA) and visceral fat (MRI) were examined.


          Baseline median (IQR) levels were as follows: MR-proADM 0.52 (0.45–0.56) nmol/L, MR-proANP 44.8 (34.6–56.7) pmol/L and copeptin 4.95 (3.50–6.50) pmol/L. Mean percentage differences (95% CI) between liraglutide and placebo group after treatment were as follows: MR-proADM −6% (−11 to 2, P = 0.058), MR-proANP −25% (−37 to −11, P = 0.001) and copeptin +4% (−13 to 25, P = 0.64). Reduction in MR-proANP concentration correlated with both increased heart rate and diastolic blood pressure in the liraglutide group. Multiple regression analyses with adjustment for BMI, free testosterone, insulin resistance, visceral fat, heart rate and eGFR showed reductions in MR-proANP to be independently correlated with an increase in the heart rate.


          In an RCT, liraglutide treatment in women with PCOS reduced levels of the cardiovascular risk biomarkers MR-proANP with 25% and MR-proADM with 6% (borderline significance) compared with placebo. The decrease in MR-proANP was independently associated with an increase in the heart rate.

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          GLP-1 receptor activation and Epac2 link atrial natriuretic peptide secretion to control of blood pressure.

          Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists exert antihypertensive actions through incompletely understood mechanisms. Here we demonstrate that cardiac Glp1r expression is localized to cardiac atria and that GLP-1R activation promotes the secretion of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and a reduction of blood pressure. Consistent with an indirect ANP-dependent mechanism for the antihypertensive effects of GLP-1R activation, the GLP-1R agonist liraglutide did not directly increase the amount of cyclic GMP (cGMP) or relax preconstricted aortic rings; however, conditioned medium from liraglutide-treated hearts relaxed aortic rings in an endothelium-independent, GLP-1R-dependent manner. Liraglutide did not induce ANP secretion, vasorelaxation or lower blood pressure in Glp1r(-/-) or Nppa(-/-) mice. Cardiomyocyte GLP-1R activation promoted the translocation of the Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor Epac2 (also known as Rapgef4) to the membrane, whereas Epac2 deficiency eliminated GLP-1R-dependent stimulation of ANP secretion. Plasma ANP concentrations were increased after refeeding in wild-type but not Glp1r(-/-) mice, and liraglutide increased urine sodium excretion in wild-type but not Nppa(-/-) mice. These findings define a gut-heart GLP-1R-dependent and ANP-dependent axis that regulates blood pressure.
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            Measurement of midregional proadrenomedullin in plasma with an immunoluminometric assay.

            Adrenomedullin (ADM) is a potent vasodilatory peptide, and circulating concentrations have been described for several disease states, including dysfunction of the cardiovascular system and sepsis. Reliable quantification has been hampered by the short half-life, the existence of a binding protein, and physical properties. Here we report the technical evaluation of an assay for midregional pro-ADM (MR-proADM) that does not have these problems. MR-proADM was measured in a sandwich immunoluminometric assay using 2 polyclonal antibodies to amino acids 45-92 of proADM. The reference interval was defined in EDTA plasma of 264 healthy individuals (117 male, 147 female), and increased MR-proADM concentrations were found in 95 patients with sepsis and 54 patients with cardiovascular disease. The assay has an analytical detection limit of 0.08 nmol/L, and the interassay CV was 0.12 nmol/L. The assay was linear on dilution with undisturbed recovery of the analyte. EDTA-, heparin-, and citrate-plasma samples were stable (<20% loss of analyte) for at least 3 days at room temperature, 14 days at 4 degrees C, and 1 year at -20 degrees C. MR-proADM values followed a gaussian distribution in healthy individuals with a mean (SD) of 0.33 (0.07) nmol/L (range, 0.10-0.64 nmol/L), without significant difference between males or females. The correlation coefficient for MR-proADM vs age was 0.50 (P < 0.001). MR-proADM was significantly (P < 0.001) increased in patients with cardiovascular disease [median (range), 0.56 (0.08-3.9) nmol/L] and patients with sepsis [3.7 (0.72-25.4) nmol/L]. MR-proADM is stable in plasma of healthy individuals and patients. MR-proADM measurements may be useful for evaluating patients with sepsis, systemic inflammation, or heart failure.
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              Adrenomedullin, a multifunctional regulatory peptide.

              Since the discovery of adrenomedullin in 1993 several hundred papers have been published regarding the regulation of its secretion and the multiplicity of its actions. It has been shown to be an almost ubiquitous peptide, with the number of tissues and cell types synthesizing adrenomedullin far exceeding those that do not. In Section II of this paper we give a comprehensive review both of tissues and cell lines secreting adrenomedullin and of the mechanisms regulating gene expression. The data on circulating adrenomedullin, obtained with the various assays available, are also reviewed, and the disease states in which plasma adrenomedullin is elevated are listed. In Section III the pharmacology and biochemistry of adrenomedullin binding sites, both specific sites and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors, are discussed. In particular, the putative adrenomedullin receptor clones and signal transduction pathways are described. In Section IV the various actions of adrenomedullin are discussed: its actions on cellular growth, the cardiovascular system, the central nervous system, and the endocrine system are all considered. Finally, in Section V, we consider some unresolved issues and propose future areas for research.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                January 2018
                28 November 2017
                : 7
                : 1
                : 115-123
                [1 ]Department of Internal Medicine Center of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [2 ]Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [3 ]Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology Herlev Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to S Frøssing: signebf@ 123456gmail.com
                © 2018 The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 20 November 2017
                : 28 November 2017

                pcos,atrial natriuretic peptide,adrenomedullin,copeptin,glp-1 receptor agonist


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