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      Hydrogen Sulfide Regulates Salt Tolerance in Rice by Maintaining Na +/K + Balance, Mineral Homeostasis and Oxidative Metabolism Under Excessive Salt Stress

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          Abstract

          Being a salt sensitive crop, rice growth and development are frequently affected by soil salinity. Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) has been recently explored as an important priming agent regulating diverse physiological processes of plant growth and development. Despite its enormous prospects in plant systems, the role of H 2S in plant stress tolerance is still elusive. Here, a combined pharmacological, physiological and biochemical approach was executed aiming to examine the possible mechanism of H 2S in enhancement of rice salt stress tolerance. We showed that pretreating rice plants with H 2S donor sodium bisulfide (NaHS) clearly improved, but application of H 2S scavenger hypotaurine with NaHS decreased growth and biomass-related parameters under salt stress. NaHS-pretreated salt-stressed plants exhibited increased chlorophyll, carotenoid and soluble protein contents, as well as suppressed accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributing to oxidative damage protection. The protective mechanism of H 2S against oxidative stress was correlated with the elevated levels of ascorbic acid, glutathione, redox states, and the enhanced activities of ROS- and methylglyoxal-detoxifying enzymes. Notably, the ability to decrease the uptake of Na + and the Na +/K + ratio, as well as to balance mineral contents indicated a role of H 2S in ion homeostasis under salt stress. Altogether, our results highlight that modulation of the level of endogenous H 2S genetically or exogenously could be employed to attain better growth and development of rice, and perhaps other crops, under salt stress. Furthermore, our study reveals the importance of the implication of gasotransmitters like H 2S for the management of salt stress, thus assisting rice plants to adapt to adverse environmental changes.

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          COPPER ENZYMES IN ISOLATED CHLOROPLASTS. POLYPHENOLOXIDASE IN BETA VULGARIS.

          D ARNON (1949)
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            Mechanism of Salinity Tolerance in Plants: Physiological, Biochemical, and Molecular Characterization

            Salinity is a major abiotic stress limiting growth and productivity of plants in many areas of the world due to increasing use of poor quality of water for irrigation and soil salinization. Plant adaptation or tolerance to salinity stress involves complex physiological traits, metabolic pathways, and molecular or gene networks. A comprehensive understanding on how plants respond to salinity stress at different levels and an integrated approach of combining molecular tools with physiological and biochemical techniques are imperative for the development of salt-tolerant varieties of plants in salt-affected areas. Recent research has identified various adaptive responses to salinity stress at molecular, cellular, metabolic, and physiological levels, although mechanisms underlying salinity tolerance are far from being completely understood. This paper provides a comprehensive review of major research advances on biochemical, physiological, and molecular mechanisms regulating plant adaptation and tolerance to salinity stress.
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              Effect of salinity stress on plants and its tolerance strategies: a review.

              The environmental stress is a major area of scientific concern because it constraints plant as well as crop productivity. This situation has been further worsened by anthropogenic activities. Therefore, there is a much scientific saddle on researchers to enhance crop productivity under environmental stress in order to cope with the increasing food demands. The abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, cold, and heat negatively influence the survival, biomass production and yield of staple food crops. According to an estimate of FAO, over 6% of the world's land is affected by salinity. Thus, salinity stress appears to be a major constraint to plant and crop productivity. Here, we review our understanding of salinity impact on various aspects of plant metabolism and its tolerance strategies in plants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-462X
                21 December 2015
                2015
                : 6
                : 1055
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University Gazipur, Bangladesh
                [2] 2Laboratory of Plant Stress Responses, Department of Applied Biological Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University Miki, Japan
                [3] 3Plant Abiotic Stress Research Group & Faculty of Applied Sciences, Ton Duc Thang University Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
                [4] 4Signaling Pathway Research Unit, RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science Yokohama, Japan
                Author notes

                Edited by: Shabir Hussain Wani, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir, India

                Reviewed by: Hong-Bo Shao, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, China; Abdul Hameed, University of Karachi, Pakistan

                *Correspondence: Mohammad G. Mostofa, mostofa@ 123456bsmrau.edu.bd ; Lam-Son Phan Tran, sontran@ 123456tdt.edu.vn , son.tran@ 123456riken.jp

                This article was submitted to Crop Science and Horticulture, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Article
                10.3389/fpls.2015.01055
                4685665
                26734015
                1df088aa-3734-4b73-8e5d-3821d7fcf0ea
                Copyright © 2015 Mostofa, Saegusa, Fujita and Tran.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 07 October 2015
                : 13 November 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 60, Pages: 14, Words: 0
                Categories
                Plant Science
                Original Research

                Plant science & Botany
                global salinity,gasotransmitter,hydrogen sulfide,ionic stress,physiological and biochemical mechanisms,reactive oxygen species,rice,salt tolerance

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