Differences have been postulated for the mechanism of natriuresis due to atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), salt loading with high salt diet (HS) and acute volume expansion (AcVE), in particular between AcVE and ANP based on the observed synergism between the two. Therefore the effects of and the interaction between the three were investigated in rats. ANP and AcVE produced the same natriuresis in HS as in normal salt (NS) rats and, in both, the actions of ANP and AcVe were significantly additive showing similarity in mechanisms. Synergism [(AcVE + ANP) – AcVE] was, however, present only in the NS rats. Proximal tubular sodium transport was the same with AcVE and ANP+AcVE suggesting that synergism is a property of more distal nephron segments. In conscious HS rats, plasma ANP was significantly less but natriuresis was higher than in NS rats. ANP therefore probably has some causative role in the natriuresis of AcVE but none in that of HS loading. Urinary dopamine was significantly increased by HS and further increased by AcVE in both NS and HS rats, the relationship between dopamine and natriuresis being significantly positive (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.328) reaching equivalent levels in both NS and HS rats. Systemic benserazide prevented the increase in urinary dopamine but only attenuated the natriuresis of AcVE. We conclude that HS does not potentiate the natriuresis of AcVE or ANP, synergism between AcVE and ANP is not a proximal tubule event and dopamine accounts for significant natriuresis of VE in addition to other natriuretic factors.